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Psychological Disorders Lecture Notes Clear and concise notes taken during lecture. (Received an A)

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Psychological Disorders Ancient (retarded) Treatments  Trephining: poking a hole in your head so the demons will escape  Exorcism: consuming and doing bad things to yourself so the demons will leave  Asylum: place where you kept the crazies o Pinel comes along and tells everyone these people just have “sick minds”  Credited for the medical model of mental illness: proposes that abnormal behaviour should be viewed as a disease and treated as such  Gave rise to psychiatry Criteria for Abnormal Behaviour  Statistical Frequency: Do most people do this?  Deviation from social norms o Culturally different o Diagnostic + Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)  Contains every known psychological disorder  Many revisions: homosexuality was once on the list  Maladaptive behaviour: any kind of behaviour that doesn’t promote personal growth  Personal Distress  Any disorder can vary by degree Diagnosing  Matching people's symptoms to pre-established categories of psychological disorders (DSM)  Therapists will talk to patients, look at personality tests, and talk to family members Multiaxial System of Diagnosing  I—used to record the disorder from the DSM  II—personality disorders and retardation o Hard to detect  III—medical disorders  IV—estimate stressful events  V—estimate the patient’s level of functioning (at work, school, socially) Problems in Diagnosing  Can lead to social stigma  Self-fulfilling prophecy after the individual has been diagnosed  Diagnosing can colour one’s perception  Rosennan (1973): postulates that “normal” is defined by the environment o Took 8 pseudo-patients who tried to gain admittance into mental hospitals by telling them they heard voices…then they acted completely normal o Despite their normal behaviour they were kept up to 52 days and they were considered “in remission” o The other patients told the pseudo-patients that they weren’t crazy “you must be a reporter” while the staff identified their behaviour as a manifestation of their disorder o The meanings of behaviour are easily misunderstood because the staff in these places expect to see abnormal behaviour Prognosis: The course that the illness is taking (get better/worse) Neurotic Disorders  Involve feelings of distress but don’t lead to a distortion of reality  Usually don’t engage in bizarre behaviours Anxiety Disorders  Generalized Anxiety Disorder (free floating) o Tend to just worry so much about minor things  Phobic Disorders o Simple (snakes, heights) or social (public speaking)  Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia (fear of being in public places)  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Somatoform Disorders  In between psychological and medical disorders and refer to physical symptoms that have no physiological basis  NOT to be confused with psychosomatic disorders *note the difference o A psychosomatic disorder has an actual medical disorder (allergies, etc) attached to it  Hypochondriasis: minor symptoms are misinterpreted as having a disease o Do not believe they have a psychological problem  Conversion disorder (hysteria): Very rare and in
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