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Day 1 +2 Psych notes Psych notes on chapter 12

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Day 1 Psych Notes September23rd,2010  Research done by psychologists is empirical(based on biological findings Scientific Method Theory: frustration causes aggression Operational definitions: Defining what you mean by the things you measure SPECIFICALLY(so someone can duplicate experiment if need be) Compare deprived group to not deprived group and see if their behaviour proves your theory [[ You can never PROVE a theory because you didn’t take into account every possible way aggression in this case is caused.You only tested one possible way frustrations causes aggression.]] [[If results fall in line with theory you can say they CONFER with the theory but NEVER prove it.]] Observation +factsTHEORY(abstract statement)HYPOTHESIS(specific prediction)(operationalize terms)EXPERIMENT(then start cycle again) True Hypothesis: 1. Can confirm theory 2. Provide new facts leading to new theories If the theory isn’t proved you may try to resolve problems that arose during experiment 1 study= 1 link in the chain To tests theory you must look at the big picture(1000’s of studies ) that prove the same thing. Day 2 Psych Notes September 23 2010 Ch2: Methods of research Everything we know is derived form sci research 4 Different Methods What kind you use depends on type of research your conduct 1.Survey Method Sa  Consists of written questions that are used to determine peoples behaviours attitudes, or belief. Advantages: Efficient,cheap way of collecting data,easy to analyze data,anaonymous therefore greater chance of honesty/accuracy Disadvantages: Need large groups,Misinterpretation(ex.using the term gay b/c it has a diff connotation and interpretation),no control over validity/accuracy of answers Pilot study-mini study that you do before carry through w/ full study to see if there are problems,and to fix them before you carry on with the full study Big circle population Small circle sample In order to generalize from A sample to a population Your sample must be representative of the population Random Sampling- each person in the population has an equal chance of ending up in your sample Equivalent to drawing names from a hat b/c everyone in the class had an equal chance of being picked Oppsosite of representative sample= BIAS Sample Bias Sample- magazine surveys b/c responses are limited to the ppl that read that magazine and who fill it out AND send it in(perhaps ppl who fill in the survey are different,more motivated) Low return rate indicates bias survey 2.Naturalistic Observation  Used when you want to describe or measure peoples behavior as they are behaving naturally in a natural setting.  Degree of naturalness varies but the participants don’t know they are being surveyed  Disadvantages:  You can have what is called expectancy effects  Researchers expect a certain result from study so that’s what you llok for,see and notice from observation  Try to minimize subject reactivity-subject being aware of you recording their behavior  Subject- anyone who participates in a study  Use hidden cameras 
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