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Lecture

Psych 1010, section I (lecture #2, September 19,2012).pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Fall

Description
Continuation  of  Research  of  Methods  note  from  lecture  #1   Lecture  #2         Psych  1010:  Dr.  Jubis,  Section  I     Note  Date:  September  19 ,  2012         Control  group     • The  group  that’s  used  as  the  basis  for  comparison   • Has  the  “zero”  level  of  independent  variable   • The  CONTROL  and  EXPERIMENTAL  groups  are  similar  in  every  way  except   for  the  independent  variable     • Example:  you  have  2  groups,  group  A  (is  a  control  group,  the  groups  don’t   have  similar  expectations)  in  group  B  (is  a  PLACEBO  control  group,  all   groups  have  similar  expectations).  In  group  A,  no  drinks  are  given  to  the   control  groups,  but  in  group  B  the  control  group  is  given  alcohol  (free  drinks)   o Independent  variable  à  how  much  alcohol  they’ve  drunk   o The  different  groups  (0oz,  2oz,  4oz)  have  different  expectation  of  the   memory  test   o NOT  necessarily  cause  and  effect  because  expectation  could  be  a   factor     • PLACEBO  CONTROL  GROUP:   o Usually  used  in  drug-­‐related  studies  where  people  might  have  strong   expectations  about  drug  effect)   o Is  a  special  type  of  control  group  that  is  used  to  control  for  subject’s   expectations  that  could  affect  the  results   o Example:  given  a  vitamin  without  the  active  ingredient  for  reducing   headache,  you  take  the  vitamin  pill  mistakenly  thinking  it  is  Tylenol   and  believe  it  works  and  you  feel  better  à  psychological   o If  the  control  group  is  given  a  placebo,  then  it’s  assumed  that  all   groups  (the  control  and  experimental  groups)  are  equal  in  terms  of   their  expectation,  and  so  any  differences  in  behavior  (memory)  can  be   attributed  to  the  actual  amount  of  alcohol  consumed  and  not  to   expectations   o Thus,  in  the  example  of  group  A  and  B  à  tell  group  B  “there  could  be   up  to  4oz  of  alcohol  in  the  drink”  (but  don’t  tell  them  there  is  no   alcohol  in  it)     Confounding  Variable   • A  variable  that  interferes  with  the  results.  It  affects  that  dependent  variable,   so  you  don’t  know  whether  the  effects  are  caused  by  the  independent   variable  or  the  confounding  variable  of  both   • Example:  alcohol  0oz,  2oz,  4oz  à  the  confounding  variable  might  be  memory   lose   • Independent  variable  is  NEVER  controlled  however  everything  else  is   controlled         Continuation  of  Research  of  Methods  note  from  lecture  #1   Lecture  #2         Psych  1010:  Dr.  Jubis,  Section  I     Note  Date:  September  19 ,  2012     th     Random  Assignment:     • By  doing  this  you  are  assuming  that  all  individual  differences  variables   (background,  religion,  ethnicity,  etc.)  are  being  evenly  distributed  among   groups,  so  that  the  groups  are  equivalent  (except  for  independent  variable)       4.  Correlation  Method  (last  method  of  the  ‘methods  of  research’):  measures  the   degree  of  relationship  between  2  variables.  There  is  no  attempt  to  manipulate  or   control  variable.  Rather,  naturally  occurring  variations  on  the  two  variables  are   measured  to  see  if  they  are  related.   • HELPS  MAKE  PREDICTIONS   • Example:  study  relationship  between  fatigue  and  test  scores  à  give  the   students  a  rating  scale  –  i.e.  on  scale  of  one  to  ten  how  tired  are  you  at  this   moment   o Scatterplot  is  used  to  graph  the  correlation  method  à  each  individual   gets  two  scores.  Example  of  graphs             CANNOT  PREDICT  ANYTHING     WITH  THIS  GRAPH!                               CAN  PREDICT!     -­‐Example:  40  fatigue  can  predict  that     the  person  is  going  to  get  around     25%   G   Fatigue   Continuation  of  Research  of  Methods  note  from  lecture  #1   Lecture  #2         Psych  1010:  Dr.  Jubis,  Section  I     Note  Date:  September  19 ,  2012     th       -­‐ The  closer  the  points  to  the  line  the  stronger  the   relationship  between  the  2  variables  à  stronger   predictability;  however,  you  need  a  specific  number  to   know  how  these  two  variables  are  related     -­‐ To  know  this  number  you  take  the  2  numbers  of  each   variable  of  the  same  individual  put  it  in  a  formula  to  get  it,   e this  number  is  called  CORRELATION  COFFICIENT  à   G represented  with  the  letter  ‘r’,  r  can  be  positive  or   negative   o The  higher  the  number  the  g
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