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Lecture

Pscyh 1010, section I (lecture #3, September 26, 2012).pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Fall

Description
Statistics  (Con’t  of  lecture  #2)  and  Freud’s  theory   September  26 ,  2012   th Psych.  1010,  Section  I-­‐  Dr.  Jubis   Descriptive  Statistics   B)  Variability:  how  much  scores  spread  out  from  the  mean   • Different  ways  to  measure  variability   o Range:  differences  between  highest  and  lowest  score  (Highest  –   Lowest  =  Range)   § Problem:  you  could  have  a  situation  were  every  student  gets   90%  except  1  person  gets  30%  à  the  30%  brings  the  range   down   o Standard  Deviation:  measures  the  AVERAGE  spread  of  scores   (deviation)  from  the  mean.  It  takes  into  account  ALL  scores  in  the   distribution   § The  higher  the  number  the  greater  the  variability       Normal  Distribution:  is  hypothetical  distribution  (in  theory  à  what  is  common)   • It  is  important  in  psychology,  because:   o A)  most  psychology  variables  are  normally  distributed  when  a  large   sample  is  used   o B)  it  provides  a  precise  way  of  determining  how  people  compare  to   one  another  (see  how  your  scores  compare  to  other  people’s  for  it  to   mean  something  à  see  how  well  you  did)   • Distribution  doesn’t  always  have  to  be  symmetrical,  it  could  be  positive  or   negative  skew  distribution                                 SYMMETRICAL  DISTRIBUTION     -­‐ even  distribution  on  each  side   -­‐ mean,  mode  and  median  are  the  same  number         Statistics  (Con’t  of  lecture  #2)  and  Freud’s  theory   September  26 ,  2012   Psych.  1010,  Section  I-­‐  Dr.  Jubis   Inferential  Statistics:  provide  a  way  of  determining  how  much  confidence  we  can   have  in  result  obtained  from  sample  by  telling  us  how  likely  it  is  that  results  are  due   to  chance  alone  (tells  you  if  the  relationship  is  real  and  not  due  to  chance.       Biopsychosocial  Approach  àdifferent  levels  of  analysis  for  behaviours     Biological  Influences:     Psychological  Influences:   -­‐ genetic  predispositions     -­‐ learned  fears  and  other   -­‐ genetic  mutation   learning  expectation   -­‐ genes  responding  to  the     -­‐ emotional  responses     environment       -­‐ cognitive  processing  and   -­‐ natural  selection  of  adaptive     perceptual  interoperations   physiology  and  behaviours               BEHAVIOUR  or  MENTAL     PROCESS               Social  Influences       -­‐Biological  Perspective  (how  you  choose  to  look  are  behaviours):   • Neuroscience     • Evolutionary     • Behaviour  genetics     -­‐Psychology’s  Current  Perspectives:  (know  for  test)   • Psychodynamic   • Behavioral   • Cognitive   • Social-­‐cultural   • Neuroscience   • Evolutionary   • Behaviour  genetics       Statistics  (Con’t  of  lecture  #2)  and  Freud’s  theory   September  26 ,  2012   Psych.  1010,  Section  I-­‐  Dr.  Jubis   Freud’s  Psychoanalytic  Theory  à  theory  of  personality   • 1856-­‐1939  à  started  as  physician  à  was  interested  in  cocaine  study   • used  cocaine  to  feel  better  à  but  later  on  got  addicted  to  it  (he  had   depression)   • used  psychoanalytic  approach  to  understand  human  behaviour   • psychologist  like  to  view  things  from  a  scientific  perspective  à  Freud  didn’t   look  at  things  from  a  scientific  perspective  ∴  Freud’s  theory  lost  it  popularity   because  it  cannot  be  explained  in  a  scientific  perspective     • Elements  in  Freud’s  Theory:   o Instincts:  basic  building  block;  made  distinction  between  two  types  of   instincts  (energy  that  has  to  be  released)   § 1)Life  Instincts   • Libido  à  sexual  instincts   § 2)  Death  Instincts  (individual  is  born  with  them)   • Three  structures  of  personality   o 1)  Id   § contains  the  instincts  
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