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3-PSYC 1010_Lecture3(Sept27,2012).pdf

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC 1010 K September 27, 2012 ** These notes are not a substitution to attending class, reading the textbook, or taking your own notes** General Announcements - Deadline for URPP “paper stream” is September 30th - By the weekend Dr. Jubis will be sending out an email with tips on how to study for the test including tips on short answer questions - Visit from Amanda from the Health Aid Network: - first test is Oct 18th (28%) - last date to enroll with permission of course director is October 23rd, 2012 - be on top of your work - start now! - join clubs, get involved - Stress management workshop: Oct 3rd, 2012 10am-12pm at N204 Bennett, free for all York students, register in Room 110 Bennett Centre - Soccer game: Set 29th 1pm-5pm at York Stadium Statistics (Continued) Normal distribution (hypothetical) • also known as “bell curve” • represents the distribution of scores you would get if you tested an entire population • the mean is located at the centre of the normal distribution, most scores are found in the middle of the distribution around the mean and as you move away from the mean, less scores are located at the extremes • in a normal distribution the mean, median, and mode are equal • normal distributions are symmetrical • the normal distribution is hypothetical as most people do not go out and measure all individuals in a population Important in Psych because: a) Most psych variables are normally distributed when a large sample is used b) Provides a precise way of determining how people compare to one another Inferential Statistics • inferential statistics provide us with a way of determining how much confidence we can have in results obtained from samples by telling us how likely it is that results are due to CHANCE alone • we want to feel confident that results are real or statistically significant (i.e. that you would find the same results if you tested the entire population) • Example: producers of a new cereal, Braino, believe that eating the cereal improves IQ. To test their hypothesis one group of people eat Braino while another group of PSYC 1010 K September 27, 2012 people eat a No-name cereal. They find that people who eat Braino cereal have a mean IQ = 125 and that people who eat No-name cereal have a mean IQ = 122. • by looking at the means, it looks like Braino cereal made people smarter but to determine if Braino cereal really made people smarter, you need to perform inferential statistics to determine if the means are significantly different • we need to determine some sort of cut off to determine if the results are significant or if they are due to chance • psychologists have chosen p = .05 where p stands for probability level (for the purposes of this course, you do not have to know how to determine p) • if the p is .05 or less then we say that results are statistically significant (i.e. the apparent difference between means is real and if we tested the entire population we would see the same result) • if the p is greater than .05 then results are due to chance alone (i.e. there is no significant difference between the IQs of the two groups and the cereal did not have a significant effect on IQ) ***END of material on statistics and research methods*** Personality - Freud and Psychoanalysis Background: • psychologists first believed behaviour was only due to psychological influences • but we now know that behaviours are due to a variety of interacting factors and modern psychologists take a biopsychosocial approach • a particular behaviour or mental process is influenced by psychological influences, biological influences and social-cultural influences. Examples of these influences are in the table below. Psychological Influences Biological Influences Social-Cultural Influences - learned fears - genetic predispositions - presence of others - emotional responses - genetic mutations - cultural, societal, and - cognitive processing and - natural selection of family expectations perceptual interpretations adaptive physiology - peer and other influences - genes responding to - compelling models (i.e. environment media) • the perspective of a psychologist will influence their explanation for the behaviour as they will put more emphasis on some influences versus others (see textbook page 9 for different perspectives and note that neuroscience, evolutionary and behaviour genetics are the biological perspective) • no one perspective is better than the other, all are true to some extend at explaining behaviour PSYC 1010 K September 27, 2012 Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamics • Freud developed a theory of personality, Psychoanalysis, that is also viewed as a general perspective for explaining behaviour • Freudʼs original theory was modified by later theorists who liked his theory but not all aspects of it. The modified theory is known as Psychodynamics and the theorists and psychologists that developed it are known as neo-Freudians ***Note: Lecture on Freud and Psychoanalysis will go into greater depth than the textbook so we will not be able to talk about all topics from the textbook in class. But be sure read everything in the assigned modules as everything is fair game for testing even if it is not covered in lecture *** A brief history: Freud and Psychoanalysis • 1856-1939, coincided with Victorian era • Freud began as a physician • he was interested in learning more about cocaine after taking it himself to relieve his depression; soon became addicted to it and decided this was not the path to take to manage depression • one of his colleagues was treating a female patient who had physical symptoms (i.e. paralysis) for which he could not find a physiological basis. However, he discovered that when he spoke with her about her problems, some of her symptoms went away • this condition was known at the time as “hysteria” and was often associated with major trauma (i.e. sexual assault) • Freud decided to take over
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