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Lecture 5

5-PSY1010 Lecture 5 October 11 2012.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Fall

Description
PSY1010  K  Lecture     Important  Announcements   -­‐ October  18  first  test    in  regular  class  time  –  worth  28%   -­‐ Be  sure  to  bring  photo  id.  YorkU  card  is  preferable.   -­‐ All  information  is  in  study  tips  posting  on  moodle  and  was  also  emailed  out.   -­‐ today’s  material  is  not  covered  for  test  1   -­‐ Video  14  also  on  test.  It  is  on  moodle  or  you  can  google  the  title  of  the  film.     Learning   -­‐ Behaviorist  perspective:  our  behaviors  is  shaped  by  how  the  environments   reacts  to  our  behaviors   -­‐ Distinction  between  learning  and  performance   -­‐ 3  general  types  of  learning   o Classical  conditioning  (Pavlov  –  covered  today)   o Operant  conditioning  (skinner)   o Cognitive  learning  (acquiring  mental  info)    Observational  learning  –  learning  by  observing  others   -­‐ Classical  Conditioning   o Conditioning  is  learning  through  associations   o Pavlov  was  studying  digestive  system  of  dogs  and  would  collect  saliva   from  dogs  when  dog  would  get  food.  Dog  salivating  when  they  smelt   food  was  normal.  What  was  not  normal  was  that  dog  would  salivate  to   sound  bell.  Pavlov’s  dogs  started  salivating  to  sounds  of  bell.   o By  chance,  whenever  dog  given  food  a  bell  sounded  by  chance.  Bell   and  food  presented  to  dog  together  and  dog  made  the  connection   between  bell  and  food  and  eventually  food  wasn’t  necessary  for  dog  to   salivate  and  bell  was  enough  to  make  it  salivate.   o 4  components  of  classical  conditioning    Unconditioned  response  (UR):  an  involuntary  response  (R);  a   reflexive  response  that  requires  no  previous  learning    Unconditioned  stimulus  (US):  a  stimulus  (S)  that  precedes  and   elicits/triggers  UR    Conditioned  stimulus  (CS):  any  stimulus  that  is  paired  with  the   US  and  eventually  triggers  a  CR    Conditioned  response  (CR):  response  triggered/elicited  by  the   CS.  Same  as  the  UR.   o In  Pavlov’s  case:      US  was  food  and  salivation  was  UR    CS  was  bell  and  salivation  was  CR   o Example  1:  Uncle  Ben  comes  over  to  your  house  every  Sunday  for   lunch  and  says  “Hello”  and  always  slaps  you  hard  on  the  back  which   causes  you  to  flinch.    Slap  on  the  back  (US)  flinch  (UR)    Pairing  of  “Hello”  with  slap  repeatedly    Sound  of  someone  saying  “Hello”  (CS)flinch  (CR)   o Aversion  training      Uses  classical  conditioning    Have  a  drug  that  produces  nausea    Give  person  the  drug  and  then  drink  alcohol  so  that  nausea   caused  by  drug  and  alcohol  get  paired.  So  the  mere   sight/smell/taste  of  alcohol  elicits  nausea.   o Phobias    Little  Albert:   • Watson  presented  albert  with  furry  white  mouse.  Then   Watson  had  colleague  make  loud  sound  when  mouse   presented  to  little  albert.  So  startle  response  paired   with  mouse.  So  now  whenever  little  albert  saw  the   mouse,  he  would  cry  and  show  afraid.   • Loud  gong  sound  (US)    fear  (UR)   • Mouse  (neutral)  paired  with  gong   • Mouse  (CS)    fear  (UR)    Conditioned  stimulus  is  always  the  phobic  stimulus   o Higher  order  conditioning  –  SHORT  ANSWER  question  in  the  past    When  a  well  established  CS1  starts  acting  as  though  it  were  an   US  and  is  able  to  bring  the  conditioned  response  under  the   control  of  a  CS2   • Food  (US)    salivation  (UR)   o Bell  and  food  associated   • Bell  (CS1)    salivations  (CR)   • Now  we  pair  light  with  bell   • Light  (CS2)    salivation  (CR)    So  light  is  second  CS  or  higher  order  CS    So  the  further  away  you  get  from  the  US,  the  weaker  the  CR.   o Stimulus  generalization  is  when  a  conditioned  response  occurs  in   response  to  oth
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