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PSYC 1010
Jennifer Steeves

Ch.7 Semantic and episodic memory are two kinds of memory that describe memory for general info and memory for personal events – Endel Tulving(1972) 3 key process of memory encoding(getting info in) – involves forming a memory code. Requires attention, analogous to entering data using a computer keyboard storage(maintaining it) – involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time. Analogous to saving data in a file on a computer Retrival(getting it out) – involves recovering information from memory stores. Analogous to calling up a file and then displaying it on your computer monitor The Role of Attention Attention – involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. Selective attention – filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awareness Cocktail party phenomenon – suggests that attention involves late selection based on the meaning of input -if you at party with a lot of conversations happening and you only giving attention to the convo with you and your friend but hear your name in a diff convo even tho you ignore all the other convo youll give attention there. Lavie(2005,2007) – location of our attention filter depends on the ‘cognitive load’ of current information processing -when we are attending high load task, complicated ones, that consume much of our attentional capacity, selection tends to occur early. - but when we are involved in simpler low load tasks more attentional capacity is left over to process the meaning of distractions, allowing later selection Multi-tasking – human brain can effectively handle only one attention-consuming task at one time, when ppl multi-task they are switching their attention back and forth among tasks, rather than processing them simultaneously Lynn Hasher – much of the info we want to remember is encoded as a result of effortful processing, some types are acquired more automatically. Like picking up info because we are intentionally attempting to do so, but some just come automatic Levels of Processing Craik and Lockhart – propose that incoming information can be processed at different levels -> for instance, they maintain that in dealing with verbal info, ppl engage in three levels of processing 1.structural encoding relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus ex. Words on a screen – structural encoding registers on how they were printed(upper,lower case etc) 2.Phonemic encoding emphasizes what a word sounds like, involves naming or saying the words 3.Semantic encodingemphasizes the meaning of verbal input, it involves thinking about the objects and actions the word represents Levels of Processing theory – proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes -deeper processing leads to enhanced memory -retention of stimulus words would increase as subjects moved from structural to phonemic to semantic Enriching Encoding  3 dimensions to encoding that enrich the encoding process – elaboration,visual imagery,self referent Elaboration – semantic encoding can often be enhanced through this linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding linking that phobias are often caused by classical conditioning and apply this you your own fear of spiders Visual Imagery imagery – the creation of visual images to represent words to be remembered -easier to form images of concrete objects such as juggler than of abstract concepts such as truth – Allan Paivo(1969) -Paivo – imagery facilitates memory because it provides a second kind of memory code, and two codes are better than one Dual-coding theory – holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall Self-referent encoding - involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant -enhance recall by promoting additional elaboration and better organization of information Storage: Maintaining information in Memory Wax Tablet – used to explain memory storage -Aristotle and Plato compared memory to a block of wax that differed in size and hardness for various individuals -as long as the image remained in the wax, the memory would remain intact Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin – 3 memory stores of information-processing theories -first two are temporary storage buffers – sensory store and short-term store -then transferred into a long-term store -distinct types of memory not anatomical structures Sensory Memory Sensory memory – preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time,usually only a fraction of a second -allows the sensation of a visual pattern, sound, or touch to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over -vision – ppl really perceive an afterimage rather than the actual stimulus -ex. Glow stick in dark, can see a full circle even though it’s a single point – sensory memory perceives image long enough to perceive a continuous circle rather than separate points of light Short-term Memory Short-term Memory(STM) – limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds Rehearsal – maintain info in short-term store indefinitely -process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information -maintenance rehearsal and elaborate rehearsal or processing Maintenance rehearsal – simply maintaining the information in consciousness Elaborate processing – increasing the probability that you will retain the information in the future Durability of Storage w/o rehearsal, info short-term memory lost in less than 20secs Capacity of Storage -STM limited in number of items it can hold George Miller(1959) – noticed that ppl could recall only about 7 items in tasks that required them to remember unfamiliar material Nelson Cowan(2005) – STM lower, 4 plus or minus 1 -can increase capacity of STM by combining stimuli into larger, higher order units, called chunks Chunk – group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit ex. NFB-CVT-CBC-IBM 4 different chunks which are 4 slots in STM Short-term memory as ‘working memory ‘ Baddeley(2003) modularized model of STM that characterizes it as ‘working memory’ more complex model than the original and another reason for loss of info from STM Working memory – limited capacity storage system that temporarily maintains and stores information by providing an interface between perception, memory and action -consist of 4 components 1.phonological loop – recitation to temporarily remember a phone number -evolved to facilitate the acquisition of language 2.visuospatial sketchpad – permits ppl to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images -at work when u try to mentally rearrange the furniture in your bedroom or map out in your head a complicated route that you need to follow to travel somewhere -researchers investigate this module by showing subjects visual sequences and spatial arrays, which they recreate 3.Central Executive system – controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as needed -coordinates the actions of the other modules 4.Episodic Buffer – temporary, limited-capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate information and that serves as an interface between working memory and long term memory Working Memory Capacity(WMC) – refers to ones ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention stable trait that appears to be influenced by heredity can be temporarily reduced by situational factors such as pressure to perform or excessive worry correlate positively with measures of high-lvl cognitive abilities, like reading, complex reasoning intelligence fundamental role in complex cognitive processes and intelligence Long-term Memory Long-term memory(LTM) – unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time all info stored in long term memory is stored there permanently, ppl forget because they cannot retrieve needed info from LTM Line of Research st 1 .electrical stimulation can trigger long lost memories as discovered by Wilder Penfield 2 .Flashbulb memories – unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events world trade center attack  vivid memories on destruction vivid memories permanent storage even we this said, no convincing evidence that memories are stored permanently penfields patients hallucinated or were just dreams etc flashbulb less vivid and complete over time How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies Clustering – the tendency to remember similar or related items in a group categorizing things to help them remember Factual information is routinely represented in categories, and when possible, this information is organized into conceptual hierarchies Conceptual Hierarchy – multilevel classification system based on common properties among items ex.mineralsmetals, stone rare/common/alloys, precious/masonry Gordon Bower(1970)  organizing in this hierarchy can improve recall dramatically Schemas Schema – organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event ex.picture of prof. office few recalled wine bottle or picnic basket which aren’t part of a typical office schema more likely to remember things that are consistent w
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