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Lecture 7

LECTURE 7 NOTES-Nov 8th Classical and Operant Conditioning.pdf

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC1010 H Lecture Notes-November 8th, 2013 **These notes are not to be used as a substitute for attending the lecture. Missing information is not the responsibility of the TA** Post Secondary Student helpline call 1-866-925-5454 Classical Conditioning continued. -4 identifiable elements Stimulus Generalization -when a S that is similar to the original CS elicits a CR Food-salivation Bell+food Bell-salivation -if you were to change the condition stimulus slightly would the dog still salivate to the slightly different condition stimulus? Ex. A different tone/pitch but the dog still salivated then we would say that stimulus generalization has occurred (US) gong-fear (UR) Mouse+gong (CS) mouse-fear (CR) -in Little Albert case, Albert showed fear response to other white fluffy things not just the mouse, which is an example of stimulus generalization -ex. If bit by German Shepherd and became scared of other dogs -the greater the similarity the more likely you are to have this response -the opposite can also happen Stimulus discrimination -when only the original CS elicits the CR -only bell that elicits salivation was the original bell that was paired with food and other bells do not elicit that salivation this indicates that stimulus discrimination has occurred -ex. If bit by German Shepherd but do not become scared of other kinds of dogs Extinction -to extinguish or to put an end to something -when the CS is no longer paired with the US and the CR gradually weakens and disappears -ex. Presenting the bell without the food, the dog will eventually stop salivating -how do you get rid of a phobia? (phobias do not go away on their own) -if you have the chance to pet dogs numerous times without being bit then eventually your fear of dogs would gradually diminish and disappear but people try to avoid phobic stimulus at all costs and therefore the phobia will persist Spontaneous Recovery -an extinguished CR spontaneously reappears when it is once again exposed to the CS -dog no longer salivates when hears bell but then one day hears bell and starts salivating -fear of dogs has disappeared but one day see dog and that fear comes back -usually spontaneous recovery results in a lesser response -no one knows why spontaneous recovery occurs -learning/acquisition phase-when the bell and food are paired together -extinction-when bell is presented without food and salivation stops 24 hour rest -spontaneous recovery-ring bell and dog salivates even though previously extinguished yet weaker than before 24 hour rest -second spontaneous recovery-ring bell and dog salivates ****short answer question on test on identifying these types of terms**** Contiguity -when 2 stimuli occur together in time (close together), they become associated -Pavlov believed 2 things about contiguity: 1. For CC to occur, the US and CS MUST be contiguous (occur at the same time) -if gong and mouse presented with too much time in between then conditioning will NOT occur 2. If ANY US and CS are contiguous, CC will occur -doesn’t matter what the natural of the stimuli are, as long as they occur together close in time they were cause classical conditioning BUT-this was proven to be not 100% correct!! Example: Rat and Nausea (US) Xrays—>nausea(UR) Solution + xrays (CS) solution-nausea (CR) -exposed rats to xrays which caused nausea -took water solution and paired it with xrays which made the solution to elicit nausea response on its own -BUT found this response to happen even after 7 hours (after 7 hours no longer contiguous) but nausea response still elicited -prepared learning -maybe we pair nausea with food without conditioning (from evolutionary perspective it promotes survival by preventing you from eating poisoned food) Compound conditioned stimulus (US) Xrays—>nausea(UR) Water/light/noise + xrays Water- nausea Light- X Noise- X -presented mice separately with water, light and noise -Theoretically each and all of these things should cause nausea because they were paired with the xrays but what was actually found was the water produced CR nausea but NOT the light or noise---goes against Pavlov! -provided evidence that we are more prepared to associate nausea with something that we actually consume STUDY 2 (US) shock- fear (UR) Water/light/noise + shock Water- X Light- fear Noise- fear -shows that you can’t just throw any two stimuli together for classical conditioning Early behaviourists underestimated the importance of: 1. Biological constraints on behaviour-some species more likely to become classically conditioned with certain stimuli compared to others because of biological tendencies (can’t make a bird salivate to something if it’s not in their nature to salivate) 2. Cognitive processes –mental processes, actively thinking, interpreting environment -thought when organisms reacted to stimuli it had to do with hard wiring in the brain, physical connections formed in the brain, organism didn’t have to think about anything but more recent researchers argue that cognitive processes occur -animals create expectations and do have a degree of cognition OPERANT CONDITIONING (Skinner) -learning through
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