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PSYC 1010
Agnieszka Kopinska

PSYCH 1010 Memory Memory Processes • The mental processes that enable us to retain and use information over time • Encoding – transforming information into a form that can be entered and retained in the memory system • Storage – retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time • Retrieval – recovering information stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it Three Stages of Memory • Three memory stores that differ in function, capacity, and duration Sensory Memory • Function – holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics • Sensory memory forms automatically, without attention of interpretation • Attention is needed to transfer information to working memory • Capacity – large, can hold many items at once • Duration – very brief retention of images • Two major types: Iconic memory – visual information (.3 sec duration for visual info) Echoic memory – auditory information (2 sec for auditory info) Short-Term Memory • Function – conscious processing of information where information is actively worked on • Capacity – limited • Duration – brief storage (about 30 seconds) • Maintenance of information allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 30 seconds Chunking • Grouping small bits of information into larger units of information expands working memory load Long-Term Memory • Once information passes from sensory to working memory, it can be encoded into long- term memory • Function – organizes and stores information more passive form of storage than working memory • Unlimited capacity • Duration – thought by some to be permanent • 2 major processes involved: Encoding – process that controls movement from working to long-term memory store Retrieval – process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory store Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding • Automatic processing • Unconscious encoding of information What did you eat for lunch today? When was the last time you studied during the day or night? You know the meanings of these very words you are reading. Are you actively trying to process the definition of the words? • Effortful processing – requires attention and conscious effort Memorizing your notes for your upcoming exam Repeating a phone number in your head until you can write it down The Serial Position Effect • Long-term memory depends on the temporal order of presentation during encoding • Memory enhancement is observed for items at the beginning (primacy effect) and the end (recency effect) of the list (forgotten middle child) Types of Long-Term Memory • Explicit memory – memory with awareness; information can be consciously recollected; also called declarative memory Example: what you did last Saturday, how to cook spaghetti • Implicit memory – memory without awareness; memory that affects behavior but cannot consciously be recalled; also called no declarative memory Example: being able to type “most zebras cannot be extra extravagant” but not able to list the letters on a keyboard from left to right or on the third row Explicit Memory • Episodic information – information about events or “episodes”. Memory tied to your own personal experiences What month is your birthday? Do you like to eat orange flavored chocolate? • Semantic information – information about facts, general knowledge, school work. Memory not tied to personal events. General facts and definitions about world What is a cloud? What color is a banana? Implicit Memory • Nondeclarative memory • Influences your thoughts or behavior, but does not enter consciousness • Procedural memory • Memory that enables you to perform specific learned skills or habitual responses Riding a bike Using a shift stick while driving Tying your shoe laces How are Memories Organized? • Clustering – organizing items into related groups during recall from-term memory • Hierarchical organization • Associations Hierarchical Organization • Related items clustered together to form categories • Related categories clustered to form higher-order categories Poorer recall if presented randomly • Even if list items are random, people still organize info in some logical pattern Semantic Network Model • Mental links between concepts common properties provide basis for mental link • Shorter path between two concepts leads to stronger association in memory • Activation of a concept starts decremental spread of activity to nearby concepts Review of Long-term Memory • Retrieval transfers data from LTM to STM • Forgetting- inability to retrieve previously available information Why do we forget? • Sensory memory – the senses momentarily register amazing detail • Short-term memory – a few items are both noticed and encoded • Long-term storage – some items are altered or lost • Retrieval from long-term memory – depending on interference, retrieval cues, moods, and motives, some things get retrieved, some don’t • *Forgetting can occur at any memory stage* Forgetting as retrieval failure • Retrieval – process of accessing stored information • Sometimes info is encoded into LTM, but we can’t retrieve it • Retrieval failure leads to forgetting Tip of the tongue phenomenon • TOT – involves the sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in long-term memory but being unable to retrieve it • Can’t retrieve info that you absolutely know is stored in your LTM Measures of Retrieval • Recal
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