Tutorial #2: Theories and Research Methods
1) Dr. R. theorizes that people are drawn to be social because, in the past, it has increased their
chances of survival. Which theoretical perspective is Dr. R. using to explain social behaviour?
2) According to the lecture discussion, how would someone using a psychoanalytic/
psychodynamic perspective explain depression?
a) It is the result of a tendency to blame oneself for all of the problems in the world and hold
beliefs of worthlessness and helplessness
b) Depression results when a person is unable to come to terms with an early loss and
misdirects their anger at the situation towards themselves
c) A depressed person has lost a sense of meaning and purpose in their life, and is somehow
blocked from feeling self-actualized
d) When a person is no longer rewarded or reinforced for doing the things that they
normally do, they are likely to become depressed
3) For her honors thesis, May wants to find out if cramming the night before an exam actually
causes students to do worse on their test. What type of research study should she conduct?
a) A descriptive study
b) An experimental study
c) A case study
d) A survey
4) According to the social desirability effect discussed in lecture, what kind of inaccuracy is
likely to be present in a survey of beer consumption?
a) People are likely to under-report how much beer they actually drink
b) People are likely to over-report how much beer they actually drink
c) People will only remember and report the beers they drank when they were in a good
d) People will only remember and report the beers they drank when they were in a bad
5) Which correlation value would you expect to see for the variables Age and Height in a sample
of elementary school children?
a) r = .05
b) r = -.85
c) r = .40
d) r = -1.00
6) An experiment is conducted to ascertain the effect of drinking alcohol on how well a person
drives. The independent variable would be ___________ while the dependent variable would be
___________. a) Score on a driving test; drinking of alcohol
b) Drinking of alcohol; score on a driving test
c) Subjects who drank alcohol; number of drinks consumed
d) Number of drinks consumed; subjects who drank alcohol
7) What is the purpose of a control group in an experimental study?
a) To observe the effect of the dependent variable on the independent variable
b) To allow the researcher to make conclusions about the effect of the independent variable
on the dependent variable
c) To determine how an alternative independent variable (variable ‘Z’) affects the
d) None of the above. Control groups are only used in correlational studies
8) Which of the following was a problematic issue associated with the Project Hope internet
a) Not enough people signed up to participate in the study
b) The study design was able to detect correlations between positive exercises and
emotional well-being, but could not determine causation
c) A large percentage of participants did not complete the study
d) The sample was biased, in that there more men participating than women
9) How did the researchers in the Featured Study on Bullying in Canadian Schoolyards use
naturalistic observation to study bullying behaviour?
a) They did not use naturalistic observation. Rather, they used an experimental design.
b) They interviewed children about their experiences of bullying
c) They asked children to act out a scene where one was playing the role of a bully and the
other was playing the role of the victim.
d) They videotaped children on the school playground during recess.
10) What are the mean, median, and mode of the following data set: 1, 1, 5, 2, 1
a) Mean = 1, Median = 3, Mode = 5
b) Mean = 5, Median = 5, Mode = 2
c) Mean = 2, Median = 1, Mode = 1
d) More data is needed before the mean and median can be calculated, mode = 1
11) The variability of ages in a university classroom is likely to be ____________ the variability
of ages at a shopping mall.
a) Greater than
b) Less tha