Tutorial #10: Intelligence
Textbook Ch. 9, p. 400-437
1) Which skill is reflective of one’s emotional intelligence?
a) Story comprehension
b) Grip strength
c) Acting ability
d) Arithmetic solving
2) A person with a verbal IQ score of 75 on the WAIS-R would be classified as:
c) Low average
3) Which subtest from the WAIS-R is part of the Verbal subscale?
a) Digit span
b) Picture completion
c) Block design
d) Digit symbol
4) What is the nature of the relationship between IQ, years of school, and income?
a) Higher IQ is associated with higher income, whereas years of school is not related to
b) More years of school is associated with higher income, whereas IQ is not related to
c) Higher IQ is associated with more levels of schooling, and both are associated with
d) More years of school is associated with higher income, but only when IQ is also high.
5) Based on the Stanford-Binet method, what would the IQ score calculation be for a 50 year-old
woman with a mental age of 25?
a) 50/25 + 100 = 102
b) 25/50 + 100 = 101.5
c) 50/25 X 100 = 200
d) 25/50 X 100 = 50
Practice Short Answer (5 marks):
List 5 of Gardner’s eight intelligences and briefly describe the core components of each.
1) Naturalist – can easily identify and classify natural objects and processes (e.g. biologist)
2) Bodily-kinesthetic – can easily control one’s body movements (e.g. athlete)
3) Linguistic – can easily manipulate words, use language effectively to convey ideas (e.g.
journalist) 4) Interpersonal – can easily understand and respond to the thoughts and feelings of others
5) Musical – can easily appreciate and produce melodious sounds; musically expressive
Multiple Choice Answer Key:
1) c 2) d 3) a 4) c 5) d
Tutorial #9: Thinking
Textbook Ch. 8, p. 365-391
1) Which of the following would likely be studied by cognitive psychologists?
a) How pheromones lead to sexual attraction
b) How people decide whether to do work or relax
c) Why we don’t remember much about early childhood
d) The influence of mood on academic performance
2) What condition must exist for a conclusion made by deductive reasoning to be valid?
a) At least on premise must be true
b) All of the premises must be true
c) The conclusion must make logical sense
d) There must be at least 3 premises
3) If you believe that the Toronto Maple Leafs is a talented hockey team, which piece of
information are you most likely to remember (according to the confirmation bias)?
a) The last time the Leafs won the Stanley Cup (1967)
b) The jersey colour that they wear for home games (blue)
c) The number of wins they had last season (35)
d) The number of losses they had last season (47)
4) Inductive reasoning uses ____________ to make ______________.
a) General knowledge; specific conclusions
b) Specific knowledge; general conclusions
c) Premises; conclusions
d) Conclusions; premises
5) Which of the following is not a barrier to effective problem solving:
b) Functional fixedness
c) Mental sets
d) Means-end confusion
6) Seeing daily reports of murders on the news leads people to worry that the murder rate is
climbing, while lesser-known statistics tell us that the rate is actually dropping. Which type of
judgment error is leading people to worry about the murder rate?
a) Availability heuristic b) Representativeness heuristic
c) Conjunction fallacy
7) Imagine that you have just come from a job interview. According to the alternative-outcomes
effect, which situation would make you most certain that you would get the job?
a) You were the only applicant who arrived early for the interview
b) There were 10 other applicants, but you were the only one with relevant previous
c) They called you back for a second interview
d) There was only 1 other applicant
8) Which cognitive distortion might be characterized by a person who thinks that it didn’t rain
because they remembered to bring their umbrella with them?
a) Arbitrary inference
9) Having a flat tire is an example of which type of problem:
a) Problem of inducing structure
b) Problem of arrangement
c) Problem of transformation
d) Problem of continuity
10) When is an algorithm a useful strategy for solving a problem?
a) When it is a problem of inducing structure
b) When there are no heuristics available
c) When there are a small number of possible solutions
d) When the problem is based on numerical data
11) Which type of culture tends to have a field-dependent cognitive style?
d) Modern Western
12) What does the theory of bounded rationality say about people’s ability to make decisions?
a) People generally use principles of rationality to make accurate decisions
b) People tend to use simplified strategies that often overlook information that would lead to
an optimal decision
c) Most decision making is based on a combination of emotion and rationality
d) People make poor decisions because they overemphasize the importance of rationality 13) Ms. L. has played 10 scratch lottery tickets and won nothing. She buys an 11 ticket because
she believes that she is ‘due for a win’ after 10 losses. What type of decision-making error is she
a) Availability heuristic
b) Ignoring base rates
c) Gambler’s fallacy
d) Conjunction fallacy
Practice Short Answer Question (5 marks):
Imagine that you are deciding whether to adopt a dog or not. List 5 things that you can do to
enhance your ability to think critically about your decision.
1 – think about both the pros and cons to getting a dog, rather than just the good things
(remembering common pitfalls)
2 – talk to friends who have dogs already to get a better understanding of what will be
involved (examine the evidence)
3 – put aside my feelings of excitement about getting a cute pet (avoid emotional
4 – avoid simplistic arguments, like ‘I want a dog, and therefore I should get one’ (avoid
5 – don’t put too much pressure on myself to make a decision right away (tolerate
Multiple Choice Answer Key:
1) b 2) b 3) c 4) b 5) d 6) a 7) d 8) d 9) c 10) c 11) a 12) b
Tutorial #8: Memory
Textbook Ch. 7
1) Which of the following is not true of the memory system:
a) Attention is required for information to pass from short-term memory to long-term
b) Information moves from sensory memory to short-term memory to long-term memory
c) Rehearsal is required for information to remain stored in short-term memory
d) Information is only stored in sensory memory for a fraction of a second
2) When you are writing a test, which memory process is most important?
3) On average, how many items can be held in short term memory at any given time?
b) 5 c) 6
4) Repeating a phone number over and over is an example of ______________.
a) Echoic memory
b) Implicit memory
c) Maintenance rehearsal
d) Elaborative rehearsal
5) Which type of encoding is likely to make a piece of information remembered for a long time?
6) Which of the following is not a memory-enhancement strategy?
a) Method of loci
b) Sperling’s method
d) Distributed practice over time
7) In long term memory, where would your knowledge about course material be located?
a) Semantic section of the declarative system
b) Episodic section of the declarative system
c) Semantic section of the procedural system
d) Episodic section of the procedural system
8) What is one possible cause of forgetting the name of a new acquaintance if it was a result of
a) The new person looks exactly like your best friend’s brother
b) You were introduced to 5 more new people right after
c) You hear someone else call him by a different name
d) It was an unusual name that you have never heard before
9) Dr. Elizabeth Loftus’ research on the memory of eyewitnesses to a crime illustrates which
point about human memory:
a) Humans generally have accurate memories
b) Humans easily (but unintentionally) fabricate memories
c) Human memories are largely influenced by their mood during the encoding process
d) Human memories for traumatic events are easily repressed
10) Which model of selective attention has received the most support from research findings?
a) Early selection
b) Intermediate selection
c) Late selection
d) There is evidence to support every model 11) What is a schema?
a) A network of information related to a single concept
b) The path that a piece of information takes through the memory system
c) A technique used to keep information in working memory
d) The part of the hippocampus where long-term memories are stored
12) According to Ebbinghaus’ curve, what is the typical pattern for forgetting nonsense
a) Forgetting occurs gradually over the course of 24 hours
b) People retain memory of nonsense syllables for approximately 1 day before forgetting
c) Most of the information is forgotten in the first few hours
d) People retain only 10% of the syllables after a few minutes
13) At the neural level, memories are believed to be formed through the development of
a) Retention circuits
b) Feedback loops
c) Long-term potentiations
d) Semantic networks
14) Which of the following is an example of prospective memory?
a) Remembering the name of your first grade teacher
b) Remembering how to drive a car
c) Remembering your address
d) Remembering you have an psych exam in 3 weeks
Practice Short Answer Question (5 marks)
List 5 strategies for improving your memory.
1 – Make the information relevant to your own experiences/interests
2 – Use deep processing rather than shallow processing
3 – Use mnemonics
4 – Chunk the information into meaningful units
5 – Overlearn the material
Multiple Choice Answer Key:
1) a 2) c 3) d 4) c 5) d 6) b 7) a 8) a 9) b 10) d 11) a 12) c
13) c 14) d
Tutorial #7: Learning
Textbook Ch. 6
1) What did Pavlov repeatedly pair with meat in order to get dogs to learn to salivate to a
a) A bowl of water b) An auditory tone
c) The smell of vanilla
d) A mild electric shock
2) When the music stops at the beginning of class, all of the students stop talking. What would
the students’ behaviour be best classified as?
a) Unconditioned stimulus
b) Unconditioned response
c) Conditioned stimulus
d) Conditioned response
3) Little Albert was a 1-year-old boy who was conditioned to fear a white rat. What was the
long-term effect of this classical conditioning experiment?
a) Little Albert remained fearful of rats for the rest of his life
b) Little Albert’s fear of rats was extinguished by the time he was 4 years old
c) Little Albert’s fear of rats generalized to all furry animals, and as a result he became very
secluded as an adult.
d) Unknown. Little Albert died when he was 6 years old, and a follow-up study was never
4) What would be the best way to extinguish a phobia of heights?
a) Help the person find effective ways of avoiding heights whenever possible
b) Gradually exposing the person to heights
c) Help the person develop an incompatible phobia (e.g. being fearful of being very low to
d) Take the person skydiving or bungee jumping
5) How does classical conditioning differ from operant conditioning?
a) Classical conditioning is associated with the work of Skinner, whereas operant
conditioning is associated with the work of Watson
b) Classical conditioning involves the use of reinforcement, whereas operant conditioning
involves the use of punishment
c) Classical conditioning involves pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned
stimulus to produce a conditioned response, whereas operant conditioning involves
pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned response to produce a conditioned
d) Classical conditioning occurs at the same time a target behaviour happens whereas
operant conditioning occurs after a target behaviour happens.
6) Which of the following is usually considered to be a primary positive reinforcer?
a) A hug
c) The removal of pain/discomfort
d) All of the above 7) After crashing her car, Emily has to work extra hours in o