Tutorial #20: The Power of the Situation
Textbook Ch. 16, p. 741-742, 748-752, 768-779, 786-787
1) Which research question is most likely to be studied by a social psychologist?
a) Why do visible minorities make less money than Caucasians?
b) Why do people feel anger in response to a threat?
c) What makes a person more likely to help someone in need?
d) What causes a person to become depressed?
2) Which of the following is an example of a social role?
d) All of the above
3) What was the main finding of the Zimbardo experiment?
a) The conditions of the prison environment led participants to behave in uncharacteristic
b) The conditions of the prison environment triggered psychopathic tendencies in the
c) Participants were quick to stand up to injustice and defend each other
d) Participants’strong sense of morality produced an efficient and humane prison
4) Which situation are people least likely to conform to the group in?
a) When there are 10 or more people in the group
b) When critical thinking is discouraged
c) When the other group members seem very different
d) When it is unclear what the correct way to act is
5) What is groupthink?
a) Aseries of cognitive processes related to how people think about themselves within a
b) The phenomenon of brainwashing
c) The tendency to automatically follow the group rather than think critically about things
before doing them
d) When a person conforms to what the group is thinking or doing even if they know that it
6) In the Milgram study, which variation made participants more likely to resist electrocuting
a) When the participant was in the same room as the learner
b) When the experimenter wore a lab coat and carried a clipboard
c) When the participant knew the learner beforehand (e.g. they were friends)
d) When the participant was working with another participant who showed no concern about
electrocuting the learner 7) Based on the foot-in-the-door technique, what is the best way to get someone to do a favor for
a) Compliment the person first
b) Ask the person for a smaller favor first
c) Focus on describing the importance of the favor
d) Ask for the favor again if they say no the first time you ask
8) How do researchers explain why people overestimate the influence that internal factors have
a) Explaining others’behaviour as caused by internal factors supports the belief that people
can control their environment
b) People believe that internal attributions are more accurate than external attributions
c) To correct for the effects of the just-world hypothesis
d) People are actually quite accurate in how much they estimate internal factors to influence
9) Which explanation illustrates the self-serving bias?
a) I missed the bus because I walk too slow
b) I won the lottery because I picked lucky numbers
c) That person got into a car accident because s/he is a bad driver
d) That person won an award because s/he worked very hard and helped a lot of people
10) In contemporary psychological research, when can deception be used?
a) Only when participants receive payment
b) Only when participants are made aware that they will be deceived
c) Only when a strong case has been made to justify the need to deceive participants
d) There are no restrictions on the use of deception in contemporary research
11) How do patterns of attribution differ between individualistic and collectivistic cultures?
a) Collectivistic cultures exhibit a self-serving bias, whereas individualistic cultures exhibit
a self-effacing bias
b) Defensive attributions are less common in collectivistic cultures
c) Fundamental attribution errors are more common in individualistic cultures
d) There are no major cross-cultural differences in patterns of attribution
12) What was one of the main findings fromAsch’s experiment?
a) Participants were more likely to disagree when the incorrect response was the line
smaller than the stimulus line
b) Most of the participants conformed to group pressure on at least 1 trial
c) Some of the participants conformed on every trial
d) All of the above
13) According to the bystander effect, what is likely to happen when a person faints while sitting
on a bench at a busy shopping mall?
a) Acrowd will form around the person, but no one will respond with help b) The first person to witness the fainting will respond and everyone else will go on with
c) The person will be intentionally ignored by the crowd
d) No one will respond to the person for a while, but eventually someone will help
14) When is social loafing least likely to occur?
a) In individualistic cultures
b) When an individual is highly agreeable and conscientious
c) When individual contributions to the group product are not easily determined
d) When the group is large
15) What occurs during group polarization?
a) The group separates into smaller groups based on differing opinions
b) The group as a whole shifts towards making a riskier decision
c) The group loses cohesiveness and begins to engage in groupthink
d) The group accepts a more extreme decision in the direction of the dominant point of view
Practice Short Answer (4 marks):
List 4 elements of the Zimbardo Prison Experiment set-up (e.g. how participants were chosen,
how were participants assigned roles, what instructions were given to participants, what clothes
were given to participants).
1 – participants chosen based on screener that deemed them psychologically healthy, normal
2 – participants were randomly assigned to be either a guard or a prisoner
3 – guards were told to maintain order, prisoners were told they had to stay in mock prison 24
hours per day
4 – prisoners wore hospital-type gown, meant to be degrading, guards wore khaki uniform, had
whistle and club
Multiple ChoiceAnswer Key:
1) c 2) d 3) a 4) c 5) c 6) a 7) b 8) a 9) b 10) c 11) c 12) b 13) d
14) b 15) d
Tutorial #19: Psychotherapy
Textbook Ch. 15
1) Which individual should be advised to seek therapy?
a) Auniversity student who has started hearing voices that aren’t really there
b) Amother of two who feels stuck in a boring life and worries that things will never get
c) A17-year-old who has been posting messages on Facebook about killing himself
d) All of the above
2) What is the nature of the relationship between diagnosis and treatment in the general
a) Close to half of the people who are in treatment do not have a diagnosed mental disorder b) Most people who have been diagnosed with a mental disorder receive treatment
c) Almost 50% of the population receives mental health care in one year
d) The most common form of treatment for any diagnosis is client-centered therapy
3) Which type of psychotherapy produces the best results?
d) Results are mostly equivalent across different therapies
4) Which of the following is not an element common to all therapies:
a) Providing a safe environment for emotion expression and understanding
b) Having a strong alliance between the client and therapist
c) Challenging dysfunctional thoughts
d) Learning more adaptive ways of relating to oneself and others
5) Which type of therapy utilizes the relaxation technique?
a) Psychodynamic Therapy
b) Behavioural Therapy
c) Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy
d) Client-Centered Therapy
6) What is the therapist’s role in psychodynamic therapy?
a) To provide genuine unconditional acceptance to the client
b) To challenge the client’s irrational beliefs
c) To be a neutral object that elicits the client’s unconscious conflicts
d) To teach the client to watch and label their thoughts and feelings
7) What is the recommended treatment for depression and anxiety?
a) Psychodynamic Therapy
b) Psychopharmacological Treatment
c) Client-Centered Therapy
d) Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
8) Identify the incorrect association between disorder and prescribed drug treatment:
b) Bipolar disorder: Mood stabilizers
c) Anxiety: Stimulants
9) In the video clip ‘Deep Brain Stimulation’, how do doctors explain the effectiveness of the
technique for treating depression?
a) The technique stimulates the emotion centres of the brain that are normally suppressed
due to depression
b) The electrodes inserted in the brain scramble signals in the neural pathways that normally
produce symptoms of depression c) The technique removes specific brain structures known to cause depressive symptoms
d) It is mostly a placebo effect, in that the belief that the treatment will be effective is what
contributes to the reduction in depressive symptoms
10) Your friend Jessie comes to you very upset, saying his long-term partner just ended their
relationship. Based on the counseling skills discussed in class, which of the following is not a
a) Say: ‘Forget about the relationship. You should go out tonight and have some fun.’
b) Say: ‘Wow you seem really upset. I know this must be really hard to deal with.’
c) Say: ‘I’m here for you no matter what.’
d) Give them a hug and focusing on listening to what they want to say about it
11) In group treatment, the therapist’s most important role is to:
a) Lead the discussions and discourage discourse between group members
b) Provide a diagnosis for each group member
c) Promote group cohesiveness and model supportive behaviour
d) Prescribe and monitor pharmacological treatment
12) Systematic desensitization involves:
a) Role-playing new behavioral skills
b) Visualizing fearful stimulus along an anxiety hierarchy
c) Pairing a feared stimulus with an undesirable response (e.g. an emetic drug)
d) Pairing a feared stimulus with a new conditioned response that is incompatible with
13) Which biomedical treatment involves placing a magnetic coil over a specific area of the head
to temporarily increase or decrease activity in the cortex?
a) Electroconvulsive therapy
b) Transcranial magnetic stimulation
c) Deep brain stimulation
14) In the featured study about treatment efficacy, what was the main finding?
a) Participants who received therapy and medication together showed a greater decrease in
b) Psychotherapy was more effective than medication at treating depression
c) Medication was more effective than psychotherapy at treating depression
d) Relapse rates for depression were lowest for participants who received both therap