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Tutorial 16 Practice Questions.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Myriam Mongrain

Tutorial #16: Health Psychology Textbook Ch. 13 1) Which of the following is not one of the current 3 major causes of death in Canada? a) Pneumonia b) Stroke c) Cancer d) Heart disease 2) How have death rates by type of illness changed since the 1900s? a) The number of deaths attributed to tuberculosis has increased over time b) While heart disease was the leading cause of death in the 1900s, cancer is now the most common cause of death c) There has been an increase in deaths due to contagious diseases since the 1900s d) There has been an increase in deaths due to stress-related chronic diseases since the 1900s 3) Which person is likely to experience the most harm as a result of stress: a) someone who just quit their job b) someone who was in an earthquake c) someone who has a lot of daily hassles d) someone who is waiting for news about test results from a tumor biopsy 4) It is Friday night, and your psychology midterm is on Tuesday morning. You’re conflicted about whether to stay in and study for the evening or go out to a party for your friend’s birthday. What kind of conflict are you facing? a) approach-approach b) avoidance-avoidance c) approach-avoidance d) avoidance-approach 5) In the study about the effect of uncertainty on levels of stress, which participants experienced the greatest amount of stress? a) participants who were told there was a 5% chance they would receive a shock b) participants who were told there was a 50% chance they would receive a shock c) participants who were told the shock would be mild d) participants who were told the shock could be either mild or strong 6) An example of defensive coping is: a) Bingeing on junk food when you feel bad b) Ignoring a friend who missed an important get-together c) Making a list of things to be grateful for d) Reviewing your study habits after getting a low grade on a test 7) Stress has a negative impact on physical health due to the effects of increased cortisol levels on ___________________. a) hypothalamus functioning b) nervous system functioning c) immune system functioning d) appraisals about one’s ability to cope with threats 8) One of the physiological components of the stress reaction is increased tension in the muscles. This state occurs as a result of ______________ hormones being released by the ______________ system. a) catecholamine; pituitary gland/endocrine b) corticosteroid; pituitary gland/endocrine c) catecholamine; autonomic nervous d) corticosteroid; autonomic nervous 9) Stress can cause higher rates of which illness? a) Cancer b) Ulcers c) Common cold d) Stress only exacerbates existing conditions; there is little evidence for a causal role 10) Which of the following is not a distinguishing feature of a Type Apersonality: a) poor sleep habits b) easily angered c) work-obsessed d) competitive 11) In the 8-year study of heart disease in men, what did the researchers observe about the relationship between personality type and suffering a heart attack? a) TypeApersonalities were disproportionately less likely to suffer a heart attack b) Type B personalities were disproportionately more likely to suffer a heart attack c) None of the participants with a true Type B personality suffered a heart attack d) Personality style did not significantly influence the likelihood of suffering a heart attack 12) In the movie “Health and Stress”, how did researchers study the relationship between psychological variables and immune system functioning? a) using factor analysis of survey data b) suppressing the immune system and observing subsequent participant reports of happiness, social isolation, and stress c) intentionally infecting participants with the cold virus and collecting cortisol samples along with survey measures of happiness and social isolation d) conducting a correlational analysis Practice Short Answer (3 marks): List 6 things that you can do to cope with stress and improve your general health (as discussed in lecture). Sample answer: 1 – practice relaxation 2 – talk to/hang out with friends 3 – maintain a healthy weight (BMI 19-24) 4 – exercise 30 minutes daily 5 – reduce sugar intake 6 – reduce alcohol use Multiple ChoiceAnswer Key: 1) a 2) d 3) d 4) a 5)a 6) b 7) c 8) c 9) d 10) a 11) c 12) c Tutorial #15: Personality Textbook Ch. 12, p. 547-585, 590-591 1) Aperson who likes to talk a lot, but is able to resist the urge to talk during lectures likely has a ____________ personality. a) Consistent b) Unique c) Flexible d) All of the above 2) When Freud developed his comprehensive theory of personality, what was his profession? a) Psychologist b) Psychiatrist c) Experimental Scientist d) Neurologist 3) The acknowledgement of the importance of delayed need gratification occurs in which structure of the personality, according to Freud: a) Id b) Ego c) Superego d) Unconscious 4) Which of Freud’s psychosexual stages is represented by the conflict of having sexual desires for one’s opposite-sex parent? a) Oral stage b) Anal stage c) Phallic stage d) Latency stage 5) Freud would say an adult whose personality is characterized by aggressiveness, messiness, and undercontrolled behaviour likely experienced difficulty during which stage of personality development: a) Oral stage b) Anal stage c) Phallic stage d) Genital stage 6) The intense fascination that some people have with celebrities may be viewed by psychoanalysts as an example of which defense mechanism: a) Projection b) Displacement c) Reaction Formation d) Identification 7) How might Rogers explain why some people are prone to worry? a) They have an overactive superego b) They believe that they are falling short of what is expected of them, and worrying will help them to meet these expectations c) They have emotional temperaments d) They feel a sense of congruence, and use worry to help them self-actualize 8) Which of the following is characteristic of self-actualized personalities: a) Able to genuinely accept themselves as they are b) Feel free to fulfill their potential c) Do not feel the need to distort their experiences to fit some ideal d) All of the above 9) How did researchers come to decide on the 5 factors that make up the Big 5 Model? a) By factor-analysing every English word that describes a personality type b) By observing thousands of people in natural settings and noting similarities in behaviour c) By theorizing what traits are most important to humans and then looking for confirmatory evidence d) By analyzing survey data that asked people to describe themselves in 5 words 10) As people get older, they tend to become more: a) Open to new experiences b) Extraverted c) Disagreeable d) Conscientious 11) Someone who likes a wide variety of music styles is likely to be high in this personality trait: a) Openness to experience b) Conscientiousness c) Extraversion d) Neuroticism 12) How was Jung’s theory of personality different from Freud’s theory of personality? a) Jung emphasized the importance of interpreting dreams more than Freud did b) Jung believed that established schools of thought about personality should not be challenged by new ideas c) Jung did not acknowledge the principle of extraversion d) Jung divided the unconscious into the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious 13) How would a behaviourist define personality? a) Behaviourism does not acknowledge the existence of personalities b) Acollection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations c) The repeated pairing of the same unconditioned stimulus to the same conditioned stimulus d) Acollection of learned defense mechanisms 14) Eysenck maintained that personality is largely determined by ___________. a) Early childhood environment b) The environment c) Aperson’s genes d) Aperson’s free will to choose how they will be 15) How does the hindsight bias relate to personality? a) People are more likely to explain their behaviour as representative of their personality than due to circumstance b) It is more difficult to assess personality based on current experiences than it is to assess personality based on memories from the past c) Hindsight was likely a driving force behind Skinner’s theory of personality d) Hindsight bias is not related to personality Practice Short Answer (3 marks): List the 3 temperaments that are known to exist at birth. For each temperament, briefly describe the personality of someone who scores highly on a measure of that temperament. Sample answer: 1 – activity – highly energetic, always busy 2 – emotionality – emotionally expressive, artistic, prone to mood swings 3 – sociability – people-pleaser, has many friends Multiple ChoiceAnswer Key: 1) c 2) d 3) b 4) c 5) b 6) d 7) b 8) d 9) a 10) d 11) a 12) d 13) c 14) c 15) a Tutorial #14:Adolescence andAdulthood Textbook Ch. 11, p. 504-505, 514-545 1) Why do teenagers have a greater potential to engage in risky behaviours than adults do? a) They have a stronger need for affiliation b) Their hormones are under-regulated, and risky behaviour gives them a different ‘rush’ than it does for adults c) The part of the brain that controls judgment is not fully developed yet in teenagers d) It is more culturally acceptable for teenagers to engage in risky behaviour 2) Jay is having an identity crisis. What would you recommend he do to move towards a resolution? a) Find a way to separate clearly his work life from his home life b) Look back on his memories to pinpoint when the crisis began and what caused it c) Take a cooking class (because he always talks about wanting to be a better cook) d) Accept the fact that he may never have a fully-formed identity 3) Aperson whose identity is at the stage of diffusion may be characterized by: a) Enrolling in classes that are easy b) Enrolling in classes that are required for a specific degree c) Enrolling in classes that their parents told them to take d) Enrolling in classes from many different faculties 4) Which was not one of the reasons mentioned by couples married 15 years or more for the longevity of their relationship? a) Being able to laugh together b) Doing activities apart, as well as together c) Sharing common values and goals d) Considering their partner to be their best friend 5) As a symptom ofAlzheimer’s disease, cortical atrophy is caused by: a) The loss of memory functioning, first for recent events, and then for older memories b) Increased neural activity in the cortex c) Shrinkage of the midbrain d) The presence of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques in the cortex 6) Who is likely to live longer? a) Rachel, a non-smoker b) Finn, who doesn’t drink c) Sue, who has had the same best friend since kindergarten d) Puck, who can function on just 4 hours of sleep per night 7) Erikson would say that adolescents ask themselves the question ________________. a) Who should I be friends with? b) Who should I marry? c) Who am I, and where am I going? d) Am I good or bad? 8) Grandpa Jackson plays an active role in the children’s programs at his church and volunteers to help out in the classrooms of the local schools. Erikson would say that Grandpa Jackson is successfully dealing with the crisis of ______________. a) Intimacy vs. moratorium b) Trust vs. mistrust c) Generativity vs. self-absorption d) Integrity vs. foreclosure 9) Kohlberg found that preconventional morality: a) Grows exponentially as children grow older b) Grows steadily through age 12 c) Declines steadily after age 7 d) Declines abruptly between ages 4 and 7 10) Which of the following occurs during pubescence: a) Growth spurts b) Full development of primary sex characteristics c) Menarche d) Full development of the prefrontal cortex 11) What explanation is given in the textbook for why adolescents begin puberty at a younger age and complete it more rapidly in the current generation? a) There are more growth hormones in the food they eat b) They have better nutrition and medical care c) There is cultural pressure to mature faster d) Puberty does not occur any earlier in the current generation 12) Which of the following is not a feature of emerging adulthood: a) Focus on the self, rather than social obligations b) Feeling not quite like an adolescent and not quite like an adult c) High optimism about the future d) Engaging in high risk behaviour and feeling invincible 13) Which statement is most accurate about cognitive abilities in late adulthood? a) Older adults have poorer memory abilities, especially for tasks involving procedural and semantic memory b) The ‘use it or lose it’hypothesis has not received much support in research findings c) Fluid intelligence is more likely to decline with age than crystallized intelligence d) Only half of adults at age 60 show no decline in their intelligence level 14) Which of the following statements about gender differences is not supported by research: a) More males than females have exceptionally high math skills b) Females have better verbal skills c) Gender differences are generally small d) While males have better overall visual-spatial abilities, females are better at tasks that require mental rotations Practice Short Answer (3 marks): List the 3 levels of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, and describe how a person at each level might come to reason that cheating on a test is bad. Sample answer: 1 – preconventional – if I cheat and get caught, I’ll get a 0 on the test 2 – conventional – the school’s policy says that cheating is bad 3 – postconventional – cheating is unfair to the rest of the class and it will prevent me from actually learning the material that I’m here to learn Multiple ChoiceAnswer Key: 1) c 2) c 3) a 4) b 5) d 6) a 7) c 8) c 9) c 10) a 11) b 12) d 13) c 14) d Tutorial #13: Child Development Textbook Ch. 11, p. 488-503, 505-514 1) The longest stage of prenatal development is called the _____________ stage. a) Germinal b) Embryonic c) Fetal d) Prenatal 2) Following conception, what is the correct or
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