Personality refers to an individual’s unique constellation of behavioral traits.
A personality trait is considered to be a durable disposition to behave a certain way in
Raymond B Cattell is a psychologist who would give huge questionnaires of simple
questions that would identify personality traits of an individual. Then he would find
correlations through a Factor Analysis, finding a hidden reason why they would correlate.
Eysenck’s theory is based on biology playing a big role in determining life. He created a
model of personality structure, based off a hierarchy of traits.
He argued that introverts would be more conditioned, aware of their environment. This
meant that if you were insensitive to the environment you would end up stimulating
yourself by being lively, active, sociable etc. You became an extravert.
Habitual responses are the responses you give to the environment by hanging out,
partying etc, as an extravert. Specific responses are questions about what an individual
likes in order to determine > a habitual response > which then confirms a trait and >
categorizes the individual as an extravert/introvert.
The fivefactor model used to describe human personality consists of:
agreeableness (willingness to collaborate)
neuroticism (negative emotionality)
conscientiousness (tendency to be reliable and ethical)
extraversion (positive emotionality, ability to bond with others)
openness to experience (being a problemsolver)
There is no definite insight into development of personalities. For that, we study:
psychodynamic , behavioural, humanistic, and biological perspectives.
Psychodynamic perspective was born in the Victorian era. It was offending because it
suggested that we are not masters of our own mind. However, it attempts to explain
personality, motivation and psychological disorders by focusing on childhood
experiences, unconscious thoughts and methods people use to cope with
Personality is made up of:
Id – part of the mind where innate instinctive impulses lie and seek satisfaction. (sexual
urges, hunger etc)
Ego the part of the mind responsible for reality testing and a sense of personal identity.
Superego – is the part of nervous system that stores information. It understands the rules
of society. (ex. stealing) There are three levels of unconscious: awareness conscious, preconscious and
Anxiety and defensive mechanisms are part of our everyday talk and culture. Anxiety is
an internal tension in the unconscious. This happens due to Id or superego getting out of
Because anxiety is unpleasant, we use a defensive mechanism, which is made up of
unconscious reactions to protect ourselves from feelings of guilt/anxiety. Defensive
mechanisms consist of rationalization (creating false excuses to justify), repression
(keeping dark thoughts buried in unconsciousness), and reaction formation (behaving in
a way opposite to one’s true feelings).
Freud’s Psychosexual Development Stages are:
Oral the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the infant
derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and
sucking. Because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers, it develops a sense of
trust and comfort through this oral stimulation.
Anal The major conflict at this stage is toilet training. The child has to learn to control
his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and
Phallic At this age, children begin to discover the differences between males and
females. Freud also believed that boys begin to view their father as a rival for their
Latency The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm.
The stage begins around the time that children enter school and become more concerned
with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests. It is a time of exploration in which
the sexual energy is still present, but it is