PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Psy

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Published on 31 Jan 2019
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
PSY
C1010 Module25 Forgetting memory
construction3improvingmemory
forgettingoccurs
when
memories
are
not
properly
encoded
storedorretrieved occurs any
memory
stages
asweprocessinformationwecan
alter
orlose
most
ofit
memoryloss forgettingcanbesevere3permanent
forgettingcanoccurdue
to adamagedorineffectivehippocampus
anterogradeamnesia is aloss oftheability
tocreatenewmemories3leads to the
lossoftheabilitytorecallrecent
pastmemories 1
occursaftertheinjury
thatcaused
amnesia
retrogradeamnesia is alossofmemoryaccessofeventsorinformation
storedbefore
aninjury
Lthatcauses
memory
loss
inthese
two
typesofamnesia
people
can
learn
howto do
somethingbut cannot
consciouslyrecall
theyeverlearned
how
todo it inthefirstplace
4inother
words
they
can
form
implicit
memories
evenifexplicit
memories
were
lost
why
we
forget
encoding
failureoccurs
becausealthoughwesense
many
thingsweonly
really
notice afewthings
agecan affectencoding however nomatterthe agewe cannever
encodeeverything
sometimeswhen we seethingsoften 3they
become
familiarto us we
neglect
encodingthem makingusforgetthethings we shouldrememberthe
most
storagedecayoccurswhen althoughweearlier
encodedamemorywe later
forgetit
it isfound that ourretentionoccursrapidly first butovertime but
thenlevelsoff
retrievalfailure occurswhenalthough
memoriesaretherethey
can
notbe
retrieved
this canbeovercome
byusing
therightmemorycures
can cause us to feel likesomethingis rightonthe tip of ourtongues
interference
occursbecauseasyoucollectmore3moreinformationtheolder
information
gets
harder
toretrieve
proactive
interferenceiswhen
older
information
poses adisruptive
effect
on
recallingnew
information
ex ifyou
haveever
changed
thepassword
toyourphoneyoumayfind that bcyou
practiced
3memorizedthepreviousone so much you
findit difficult to remember the
newone
retroactive
inferenceiswhennewerinformationposes adisruptive
effect
onrecallingold
information
oximagine
tryingtosing
your
favorite
songas achild for
exampleTwinkletwinkle
littlestar but withtotallynew lyrics that wouldbe
quite
difficult
apositive
transfer
occurs
when
previous
information
learnedaids inlearningnew
things
motivated
forgettingimplied
bysigmundfined suggeststhat we mayrepress
painful
or
unwanted
memoriestominimize
anxiety
orembarrassment
however
thisrepressionofunwanted
memoriesiscontradicted
bythefactthatwe actually
tendtovividlyremembertraumaticevents for yearsto come
memory
construction
errorsoccur
because
aftermemoriesare
recorded
althoughitmaybe
accurate the way weretrieve
themcan bechanged
by our own
imagination
makingour
recollections
inaccurate
ex think of it likethemodification oftheoriginal
message
throughout agameofbroken
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two
phone
themisinformation
effect
occurs
whenmisleading
information
corrupts
someones
memoryof an event
is said tooccur
because
visualizing
something3actuallyperceivingitstimulatessimilar
brainareas
sourceamnesiaisthe
faulty
memoryof
howwhenorwhere
information
was
learnedor
imagined
exrecognizingafacebuthavingnoideawhere
you
know
them
from
thisiswhere
deja
vuthesensationthatyou've
experienced
thisbefore stems from
methodsto
improve
memory
rehearserepeatedly usingthespacing
effect3spaced
practice
makethe materialmeaningful buildingrelevantretrieval
cues
activateretrievalcues recreatesituationsthattrigger retrieval
mnemonicdevices make acronyms3rhymes
minimize proactive3retroactiveinterference studybefore you sleep
sleepmore sleep 3dreamssolidifynewly learned concepts
testyour own knowledge find out what you do 3don't know ale
whiletestingyourself
make
material
rehearse meaningful activate
repeatedly retrieval
1pcues
r
sleep ememonfohomaf.roing3
mm
maneenp
gneig
more f
fdminimize
minimize proactive
testyour retroactive interference
knowledge interference
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