Bandura’s ideas tie into the concepts of memory. Memory is not a simple but a complicated
matter. Chip Taylor said, “No one remembers my name.” When we don’t know something, we
use metaphors. Memory is an active process.
Encoding: taking in the information and turning it into something that we can keep in our head.
Taking in stimuli and maintaining it.
The role of attention: focused awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. When we
focus on something we filter out everything else. It takes work and energy to focus on
something and block out information.
If you’re paying attention to what’s going on, then it’s early that you block out information. If
something is easy and does not require a cognitive load and you’re not paying attention then
you’re listening to everything else. An example is when you are note taking; you need to focus
on what you are taking notes on.
Attention plays a big role in encoding information.
Several levels of processing. We can encode without putting a lot of energy into it and with
putting a lot of energy into it.
- Structural (Shallow): lowest level of processing. Simple processing by looking at the
- Phonemic (Intermediate): next level of processing by using the sound of words. Putting
in a little more energy. Trying to remember what it sounds like.
- Semantic (Deep): trying to remember what the meaning of a word. You remember it a lot
longer. Putting more energy into it.
Enriched Encoding: making a lot of connections really helps people remember and make sense
of stuff. Had kids watch “Mr. Rogers”, on cooperation. Some kids got an extensive talk and
were asked to explain what they saw. These kids remembered it well and knew what
cooperation was. Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
Visual Imagery: People that use images to remember stuff helps encode something better.
Two codes are better than one.
Self Referent Encoding: high level of enriched encoding. Deciding how or whether information is
personally relevant. This adds elaboration and organization.
Storage: information processing theories. As if our brain operates like a computer and
processes information. Oldest way of storing memory is that something gets melted/stamped
into our brain. Sensory memory: that lasts a brief time. When you listen to something, it rings in your ear for a
while. There is a brief period where you’re sensory neurons hold on to information.
Short-term memory: a memory we have that has a very limited capacity. Time limited. Unless
we go over something again it will only last a short while.
Long-term memory: If you keep going over something, it will move from short-term memory to
long-term memory. Interference causes short-term memory from going to long-term memory.
Decay of memory.
Capacity of Storage: Magic number 7 +-2. Chunk is a group of familiar stimuli stores as a single
We only have 7 slots, but if we use grouping of words we can use 1 slot. FB-INH-LC-IAIB-M=
The practicalities of chunking. Used in education a lot.
The Mitchell model of debriefing. 7 steps. Chunked everything into 7 steps. Remembered
everything in the 7 steps but not beyond the 7 steps.
Short-term memory as working memory:
Phonological rehearsal loop: you hear what’s being said. And you try and remember it.
Visuospatial sketchpad: creating a sketch to list things.
Executive control system: helps you stay on track. People with ADHD/ADD do not have a
properly working executive control system.
Episodic buffer: part of your working memory which tries to make sense of what you’re talking
about makes connections. Ties the stuff you’re thinking about together and gives it meaning.
Long-term memory: unlimited capacity to remember. Not true as it requires energy to encode
memories. Flashbulb memories such as JFK, 911 become permanent. Hypnosis helps recover
memories and they remember it as we think it should be and not as it happened. Electrical
stimulation of the brain causes people to recall memories. It has been said that these are
hallucinations which believe connect to events.
Things that are repetitive are burned into memory and can be woken up after many years.
STM vs. LTM:
We talk as if there are 2 different things.
Traditional view: phonemic vs. Semantic Loss: decay vs. Interference
Some now believe:
STM is a tiny and constantly changing portion of LTM that happens to be in a heightened state
of activation. One set of rules for both.
How is knowledge represented and organized?
Clustering: tendency to remember similar or related items in groups. Things that are familiar pop
Conceptual Hierarchies: multilevel classification systems based on common properties among
items. Different vegetables, mammals, birds etc.
Schema: stories that your culture has presented to you. An organized cluster of knowledge
about a particular object or even abstracted from previous experience with the object or event.
Script: organizes what people know about common activities. What you labelled it as is what
you see. When it comes to interpersonal relations, we use stereotypes. We see what we expect
Semantic Networks: consist of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that
link related concepts. Such as red, fire engine etc.
When you get people to call out words there is a spreading activation.
Connecticut Networks and Parallel distributed Processing (PDP) Models:
Neurons that fire together, wire together. Focus on how neural networks appear to handle
PDP-simultaneous processing of same info. Focuses on how neural networks appear to handle
information. Groups of neurons firing together. PDP explains more than memories of facts and
includes visual images, motor skills. We fill in the gaps.
Remember stuff by increasing the context.
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (increases with age)
- Retrieval cues
- Partial recollections
Reinstating the Context of an Event
- Context cues aid retrieval
- Hypnosis: Even emotion is a context. You might do something when you’re angry and you might remember
it when you’re angry again