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Lecture

Memory.doc

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis

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Description
Term 3- Psych Cognitive Approach- Behavioral Perspective-concentrates on overt behavior. It stresses S-R relations and argues that theses are stamped in. Cognitive Perspective -argues that there is mental processing going on. to the stimulus - response there is a cognitive response that evaluates, predicts, interprets, memory and expects. concentrates on covert thoughts and behavior Kohler- discovered insight. Insight is the sudden understanding of how to solve a problem. “ AHA i got it “ moment. This moment taking place is a cognitive response Memory is basically learning that persisted over time. Recall-retrieving information that is not currently in your conscious awareness but that was learned earlier time Recogntion- Encoding- information put into the moery system Storage. stored in the memory system Retrieval - a moment to recall the information from the storage area How to measure memory- \ Recall- no clues to remember the topic. Recognition- like multiple choice. remembering something from a list of words Relearning - learning the material twice Information Processing Model( Atkinson & Shiffrins 3 stage model 1968) Input- processing- output encoding-storage- retrieval S-Sensory store- Short term memory(STM)- long term memory store Term 3- Psych Stimulus- the first memory goes to the sensory store. sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for short time. Has a huge capacity Visual stays alive in your memory for 1/4 second. auditory 3-4 seconds. if you don't do anything to preserve the information and dies. you wont remember. you must do something to remember like pay attention. There are certain stimuli that are salient. The second place the information goes to after sensory is the short term memory STM. short term memory is the working memory. Holds information for 15-20 seconds.Has a limited capacity and can hold 7+/- 2 pieces of info. memory spam. Works on buffer system. Randomly kicks off memory because its small limited space, known as displacement Baddely(1986) Working Memory Model of STM Auditory rehearsal- mentally repeating a password long enough to enter it online Visual Spatial information- mentally rearranging furniture in room Central Executive- divide attention and focuses Sometimes How can you increase the capacity of stm? by chunk- a meaningful unit of info. Long term memory store-has a unlimited capacity. It is permanent Evidence- flashblub memory- vivid details of past memories. age regression through hypnosis- remembring things of early age Electrical - ESB with Term 3- Psych Maintenance rehearsal - repetition Elaborative rehearsal( effortful processing strategies) - try to create associations Formal elaborative rehearsal techniques- Mnemonics- memory aid to remember Peg word system- Eidetic- photographic memory Levels ( Depth) of processing approach Level 1- processing word according to appearance. by structural encoding Level 2- processing information by sound. by phonemic encoding Level 3- processing information by meaning . by semantic encoding. greatest recall. Memory • Declarative memory system- ( factual information, explicit memories) • Procedural Memory system automatic ( actions, perceptual-motor skill, conditioned reflexes, implicit, memories) Declarative -Effortful processing Term 3- Psych • Semantic system memory-system( general knowledge,stored undated).Things we have previously learned • Episodic memory system ( dated recollections of personal experiences) memory for specific events or episodes. These are usually unique events rather than being repeated ones Why is information not accessible? • Context dependent forgetting or encoding specificity principle- refers to not being able to recall because cues used for retrieval are different from those used at encoding. You are using a inappropriate search strategy • State-dependent forgetting- when one’s mental or physical state is different at encoding and retrieval • Mood congruent memory- when people are in a good mood they remember better • Interference( competition from other monitored)- retroactive I ( backward acting) • Proactive I( forward acting I) • Serial Position Effect - when you remember words from the beginning of the list and the end. Primary effect and recency effect • Free recall task- any order of recall • Serial recall task- in order of recall Memory in natural contexts • Distortion- we recall things somewhat inaccurately Term 3- Psych • construction-we add on information that wasn't there. We make inferences and fill in the gaps • Misinformation effect- we incorporate misleading information into one’s memory of an event • imagination effect- imagine it so often, and come to understand it being real Forensic Psychology- Motivation, Work and emotion]Modules 32-37 Only testing on 33.4 Motivation - 2 components Drive or arousal Goal directed behavior Theories of Motivation- Freud’s ( instinct) Hulls Drive- Reduction Theory E= DxH • • Probability of a R= Drive x Habit Strength • proposes that biological needs of deficiencies increase our drive ( arousal) level • all behavior is geared towards satisfying and reducing arousal to a 0 level • we are always motivated to reduce our drive and arousal • 0 is the best number and our motivated to keep it Term 3- Psych • incentives- influence our motivation the anticipation of reward • • are learned Drive theories- how internal states push us • • Incentive theories- how external factors pull us • Optimal level of arousal theory( Hebb)- when arousal is too high or too low we are motivated to attain an optimal level Zukerman’s Sensation Seeking Theory • His theory is biological in nature and influenced by Eysenck • People with low levels of arousal tend to seek sensation • Extraverts- low natural level of arousal • Introverts- high natural level of arousal Characteristics of high seeking sensation • Thrill and Adventure Seeking • Experience- seeking • Not inhibited - not shy • Susceptible to boredom Conflict and Motivation Term 3- Psych • Conflict exists when there are 2 or more incompatible responses that exist simultaneously but both of them cannot be satisfied • Two types of motive - Approach motive and Avoidance motives • Types of Conflict- Approach conflict( ++) and Avo
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