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Lecture

chapter_9 notes.pdf

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Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 351-355) - Psychological tests are standardized measure of behaviour- usually mental abilities or aspects of personality. Test scores are interpreted by consulting test norms to find out what represents a high or low score. - As measuring devices, psychological tests should produce consistent results, a quality called reliability. Test-retest reliability is estimated by comparing subjectsʼ scores on two administrations of a test. Reliability estimates should yield fairly high positive correlations - validity refers to the degree to which there is evidence that a test measure what it was designed to measure. Content validity is crucial on classroom tests. Criterion-related validity is critical when tests are used to predict performance. Construct validity is critical when a test is designed to measure a hypothetical construct Key Concepts in Psychological Testing - psychological test - a standardized measure of a sample of personʼs behaviour. - used to measure the individual differences that exist among people in abilities, aptitudes, interests, and aspects of personality - a particular behaviour sample may not be representative of your characteristic behaviour Principal Types of Tests MENTALABILITY TESTS - broad class of tests including three principal subcategories: intelligence tests, aptitude tests, and achievement tests: - Intelligence tests - measure general mental ability - designed to measure potential rather than previous learning or accumulated knowledge - Aptitude tests - assess specific types of mental abilities - designed to measure potential more than knowledge - Achievement tests - gauge a personʼs mastery and knowledge of various subjects - like aptitude tests, have specific focus, but theyʼre supposed to measure previous learning instead of potential PERSONALITY TESTS - personality tests - measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes - many psychologists prefer to call these tests personality scales Standardization and Norms - Both personality scales and tests of mental abilities are standardized measures of behaviour - standardization - the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test - the standardization of a testʼs scoring system includes the development of test norms - test norms - provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing relation to other scores on the test - required because psychological tests tell you how you score relative to other people - Usually, test norms allow you to convert your “raw score” on a test into a percentile - percentile score - indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained - The sample of people that the norms are based on is called a testʼs standardization group - Even though Canadian and American societies are similar in many ways, there are also many important differences in culture, language, and educational systems that might be important considerations when evaluating an individualʼs performance on a test Reliability - Consistency in measurement is essential to accuracy in measurement - reliability - the measurement consistency of a test (or of other kinds of measurement techniques) - psychological tests are not perfectly reliable - test reliability can be estimated: - test-retest reliability - estimated by comparing subjectsʼ scores on two administrations of a test - Reliability estimates require the computation of correlation coefficients - correlation coefficient - a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables - in estimating test-retest reliability, the two variables that must be correlated are the two sets of c=scores from the two administrations of the test - reliability estimates should yield fairly high positive correlations Validity - Even if a test is quite reliable, we still need to be concerned about its validity - validity - the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure - the term validity is also used to refer to the accuracy or usefulness of the inferences or decisions based on a test - can be estimated in several ways, depending on the nature and purpose of a test CONTENT VALIDITY - content validity - the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain its supposed to cover - evaluated with logic more than with statistics - crucial on classroom tests. CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY - Criterion related validity - estimated by correlating subjectsʼ scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test - critical when tests are used to predict performance Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing CONSTRUCT VALIDITY - In measuring abstract qualities, psychologists are concerned about construct validity - the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct - critical when a test is designed to measure a hypothetical construct - process of demonstrating construct validity usually requires a series of studies that examine the correlations between the test and various measures related to the trait in question KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 356-358) - The first crude efforts to devise intelligence tests were made by Sir Francis Galton, who wanted to show that intelligence is inherited. Galton is also known for inventing correlation and percentile test scores. - Modern intelligence testing began with the work of Alfred Binet, a French psychologist who published the first useful intelligence test in 1905. Binetʼs scale measured a childʼs mental age - Lewis Terman revised the original Binet scale to produce the Standford-Binet in 1916. It introduced the intelligence quotient and became the standard of comparison for subsequent intelligence tests - David Wechsler devised an improved measure of intelligence for adults and a series of IQ tests that reduced the emphasis on verbal ability. He also introduced a new scoring system based on the normal distribution - Today, there are many individual and group intelligence tests, An individual IQ test is administered to a single examinee by a psychologist who has special training for this purpose. Group IQ tests can be administered to many people simultaneously. The Evolution of Intelligence Testing Galtonʼs Studies of Hereditary Genius - To better demonstrate that intelligence is governed by heredity (better than family trees), Galton needed an objective measure of intelligence - Made the first crude efforts to devise intelligence tests - wanted to show that intelligence is inherited - he is also known for coining the phrase nature vs. nurture and for inventing correlation and percentile test scores. - although his mental tests were a failure, his work created an interest in the measurement of mental ability, setting the stage for the subsequent breakthrough by Alfred Binet Binetʼs Breakthrough - Modern intelligence testing began with the work of Alfred Binet who published the first useful intelligence test in 1905 - Had the insight to load it with items that required abstract reasoning skills, rather than the sensory skills Galton had measured - Binetʼs scale measured a childʼs mental age - mental age - indicated that he or she displayed the mental ability typical of a child of that chronological (Actual) age Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing - other psychologists continue to build on his work Terman and Standford-Binet - Lewis Termanrevised the original Binet scale to produce the Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale in 1916. - was quite loyal to Binetʼs original conceptions but incorporated a new scoring scheme based on intelligence quotient (IQ) - a childʼs mental age divided by chronological ages multiplied by 100 - IQ made it possible to compare children of different ages - IQ ratio placed all children on the same scale which was centred at 100 if their mental age corresponded to their chronological age Wechslerʼs Innovations - David Wechslerdevised an improved measure of intelligence for adults - published the first high-quality IQ test designed specifically for adults known as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) - The Wechsler scales were characterized by at least two major innovations: - made his scales less dependent on subjectsʼ verbal ability than the Stanford-Binet - formalized the computation of separate scores for verbal IQ, performance (nonverbal) IQ, and full-scale (total) IQ - discarded the intelligence quotient in favour of a new scoring scheme based on the normal distribution Intelligence Testing Today - Today, there are many individual and group intelligence tests. - An individual IQ test is administered to a single examinee by a psychologist who has special training for this purpose - ex: Stanford-Binet & Wechsler scales - expensive and time consuming to administer - Group IQ tests can be administered to many people simultaneously. - ex: Otis-Lennon School Ability Test & Cognitive Abilities Test KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 358-362) - Intelligence tests contain a diverse mixture of questions. In the modern scoring system, deviation IQ scores indicate where people fall in the normal distribution of intelligence for their age group. On most tests, the mean is set at 100 and the standard deviation is set at 15 - Although they are intended to measure potential for learning, IQ tests inevitably assess a blend of potential and knowledge. IQ tests are exceptionally reliable, with reliability coefficients typically ranging into the 0.905 - IQ tests are reasonably valid measures of academic intelligence in that they predict school grades and the number of years of school that people complete. However, they do not tap social or practical intelligence, and they do not measure intelligence in a truly general sense - IQ scores are correlated with occupational attainment. However, there is active debate about whether they predict performance within an occupation very well. Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing - Intelligence testing is largely a Western enterprise and IQ tests are not widely used in most non-Western cultures. One reason is that different cultures have different conceptions of intelligence. Basic Questions about Intelligence Testing What Kinds of Questions Are on Intelligence Test? - Intelligence tests contain a diverse mixture of questions - dependant on many factors such as if it is intended for children or adults (or both) and whether the test is designed for individuals or groups What Do Modern IQ Scores Mean? - scores on intelligence tests used to represent a ratio of mental age to chronological age - Now, based on the normal distribution and the standard deviation - normal distribution - a symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population - Psychologists recognized that intelligence scores fall into a normal distribution - Raw scores are translated into deviation IQ scores - locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement - On most tests, the mean is set at 100 and the standard deviation is set at 15 - Deviation IQ scores can be converted into percentile scores Do Intelligence Tests Measure Potential or Knowledge? - Although they are intended to measure potential for learning, IQ tests inevitably assess a blend of potential and knowledge (due to peopleʼs different backgrounds) - test developers try to circumvent this problem by requiring subjects to apply relatively common knowledge Do Intelligence Test Have Adequate Reliability? - IQ tests are exceptionally reliable, with reliability coefficients typically ranging into the 0.90s - Low motivation or high anxiety may drag a personʼs score down on a particular occasion Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Validity? - IQ tests are valid measures of the kind of intelligence thatʼs necessary to do well in academic work - however, if the purpose is to asses intelligence in a broader sense, validity of IQ tests is questionable - IQ tests are reasonably valid measures of academic intelligence in that they predict school grades and the number of years of school that people complete. - however, the meaning of this is complicated by the fact that the casual links between IQ and schooling are bidirectional - IQ tests do not tap social competence, practical problem solving, creativity, mechanical ingenuity, or artistic talent Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing - Robert Sternberg - found that people generally recognize three components of intelligence: - (1) verbal intelligence - speaks clearly and articulately - is verbally fluent - is knowledgeable about a particular field - reads with high comprehension - (2) practical intelligence - Sees all aspects of a problem - Sizes up situations well - Makes good decisions - Poses problems in an optional way - (3) social intelligence - Accepts others for what they are - has social conscience - Thinks before speaking and doing - Is sensitive to other peopleʼs needs and desires - Although IQ tests are billed as measures of general mental ability, they actually focus somewhat narrowly on a specific type of intelligence: academic/verbal intelligence Do Intelligence Tests Predict Vocational Success? - IQ scores are correlated with occupational attainment - People who score high on IQ tests are more likely than those who score low to end up in high-status jobs - However, there is active debate about whether they predict performance within an occupation very well - employers are increasingly turning to personality tests to select employees and psychologists are also trying to develop test of practical intelligence to aid employers in their hiring decisions Are IQ Tests Widely Used in Other Cultures? - Intelligence testing is largely a Western enterprise and IQ tests are not widely used in most non-Western cultures - western IQ tests do not translate well into the language and cognitive frameworks of many non-Western cultures - different cultures have different conceptions of intelligence and value different mental skills KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 363-366) - IQ scores below 70-75 are usually diagnostic of mental retardation, but these diagnoses should not be based solely on test results as adaptive behaviour should also be evaluated carefully. Four levels of retardation have been distinguished. The vast majority of retarded people are mildly retarded - Although over 350 biological conditions can cause retardation, biological causes can be pinpointed in only a minority of cases. Research suggests that cases of unknown origin are mostly caused by unfavourable environmental factors, such as poverty, neglect, and poor nutrition. - Children who obtain IQ scores above 130 may be viewed as gifted, but cut-offs for accelerated programs vary, and schools rely too much on IQ scores. Research by Terman showed that gifted children tend to be socially mature and well adjusted. Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing However, Winner has expressed some concerns about the adjustment of profoundly gifted individuals. - gifted youngsters typically go on to be very successful in life. However, most do not make genius-level contributions because these depend on a combination of high intelligence, creativity, and motivation. Research suggests that intensive training and hard work are crucial to achieving eminence, but many theorists are reluctant to dismiss the importance of innate talent. Extremes of Intelligence Mental Retardation - mental retardation - subaverage general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18 - adaptive skills consist of everyday living skills in ten domains including communication, self-care, home living, social interaction, community use, and health/ safety - The IQ criterion of subnormality is arbitrary - right now AAMR set a flexible cut-off line which is an IQ score of 70 - 75 or below - requirement of deficits in everyday living skills is included because experts feel that retardation should not be determined solely on the basis of individualsʼ test ability - subjective assessment since no objective methods of measuring everyday living skills LEVELS OF RETARDATION - Metal retardation has traditionally been classified into four levels characterized as mild, moderate, severe, or profound. - Vast majority of retarded people are mildly retarded ORIGINS OF RETARDATION - Although over 350 biological conditions can cause retardation, biological causes can be pinpointed in fewer than 25% of cases. - increasing as scientists unravel more of the genetic bases for various kinds of disorders - Research suggests that cases of unknown origin are most likely caused by unfavourable environmental factors, such as poverty, neglect, and poor nutrition Giftedness IDENTIFYING GIFTED CHILDREN - Children who obtain IQ scores above 130 may be viewed as gifted, but cut-offs for accelerated programs vary, and schools rely too much on IQ scores and not enough on qualities such as creativity, leadership, or special talent PERSONAL QUALITIES OF THE GIFTED - Research by Termanshowed that gifted children tend to be socially mature and well adjusted - in comparison to normal children, gifted children were found to be above average in height, weight, strength, physical health, emotional adjustment, mental health, and social maturity Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing - However, Winner has expressed some concerns about the adjustment of profoundly gifted individuals - she asserts that profoundly gifted children are often introverted and socially isolated - Therefore, the psychosocial adjustment of gifted individuals may depend in part on their level of giftedness GIFTEDNESS AND ACHIEVEMENT IN LIFE - Gifted youngsters (in Terman ʼs sample for example) typically go on to be very successful in life - However, most do not make genius-level contributions - There are two very different groups that the concept of giftedness is applied to: - high-IQ childr
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