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Lecture

chapter_10_notes.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p418 - 435) KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 418-424) - Emotion is made up of cognitive, physiological, and behavioural components. The cognitive component involves subjective feelings that have an evaluative aspect - The most readily apparent aspect of the physiological component of emotion is autonomic arousal. This arousal is the basis for the lie detector, which is really an emotion detector. Polygraphs are not all that accurate in assessing individualsʼ veracity. The amygdala appears to be the hub of an emotion-processing system in the brain - At the behavioural level, emotions are expressed through body language, with facial expressions being particularly prominent. Ekman and Friesen have found considerable cross-cultural agreement in the identification of emotions based on facial expressions - Cross-cultural similarities have also been found in the cognitive and physiological components of emotion. However, there are some striking cultural variations in how people categorize and display their emotions. The Element of Emotional Experience - Emotion includes cognitive, physiological, and behavioural components - Emotion - involves (1) a subjective conscious experience (the cognitive component) accompanied by (2) bodily arousal (the physiological component and by (3) characteristic overt expressions ( the behavioural component) The Cognitive Component: Subjective Feelings - emotion is a highly personal, subjective experience - psychologists generally rely on subjectsʼ verbal reports - emotions are things that happen to us rather than things we will to occur - some emotional control is possible but emotions tend to involve automatic reactions that are difficult to regulate - conscious experience of emotion includes an evaluative aspect - pleasant, unpleasant, “mixed emotions” - Fredrickson and Branigan and Rozin not that there appear to be fewer positive emotions than negative ones and that positive emotion are less clearly differentiated from each other than negative emotions - positive psychology movement - argue for increased research on contentment, well- being, human strengths, and positive emotions The Physiological Component: Diffuse and Multifaceted - complex connection between physiological processes and emotional processes - biological bases of emotions - diffuse, involving many areas in the brain and many neurotransmitter systems, as well as the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system AUTONOMIC AROUSAL - emotions are accompanied by visceral arousal - much of the discernible physiological arousal associated with emotion occurs through the actions of the autonomic nervous system - fight-or-fight response - modulated by the release of adrenal hormones Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p418 - 435) --> hormonal changes clearly play a crucial role in emotional responses to stress and may contribute to man other emotions - galvanic skin response (GSR) - increase in the electrical conductivity of the skin that occurs when sweat glands increase their activity - connection between emotion and autonomic arousal is basis for polygraph/lie-detector - device that records autonomic fluctuations while a subject is questioned -- monitors heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and GSR -- problem: people who are telling the truth may experience emotional arousal when they respond to incriminating questions NEURAL CIRCUITS - hypothalamus, amygdala, and adjacent structures in the limbic system - amygdala plays a particularly central role in the modulation of emotion - areas in the prefrontal cortex make important contributions to the processing of emotional events - Ledoux - Amygdala - core of a complex set of neural circuits that process emotion - Thalamus - sensory inputs capable of eliciting emotions arrive in the thalamus which routes the information along two separate pathways: fast pathway to nearby amygdala and a slower pathway to areas in the cortex - Amygdala processes information quickly, detects a threat and instantly triggers neural activity that leads to the autonomic arousal and endocrine responses associated with emotion - slower pathways - can encode more details about a potential threat and evaluate the threat more thoroughly sends additional information to the amygdala, which is the “hub” of the system The Behavioural Component: Non-Verbal Expressiveness - reveal emotions through characteristic overt expressions - emotions in “body language” , non-verbal behaviour - facial expressions - Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesenask subjects to identify emotion a person was experiencing on the basis of facial cues in photographs Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p418 - 435) - subjects successful in identifying six fundamental emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, dear, surprise, and disgust - theorists believe that muscular feedback from oneʼs own facial expressions contribute to oneʼs conscious experience of emotions - facial-feedback hypothesis - facial muscles send signals to the brain and that these signals help the brain recognize
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