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chapter_10-intelligence notes.pdf

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PSYC 1010
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Chapter 10-Intelligence December-21-11 11:18 PM Intelligence-theability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively,and to deal adaptively to the environment -what constitutes intelligence may be culture specific Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability • Research found that people had "inherited mental constitutionsthat made them more fit for thinking than their less successful counterparts ○ Dismissed the fact that more successful people came from privileged environments • Research on biological basis for eminence ○ People who were more socially and occupationally successful would also perform better on a variety of laboratorytasks thought to measure of the "efficiency of the nervous system"  Measures of reaction time, speed and hand strength , and sensory acuity  Believed that size of people's skulls relates to brain volumeand therefore reflects intelligence • Mental skills not in favour because it is not relevant to mental ability (academic and occupational success) • Mental ability is inherited Alfred Binet's Mental Tests • Inspired with certain children being unable to benefit from public school teachings and wanted to know why and how to help • Made 2 assumptions: ○ Mental abilities develop with age ○ Rate at which people gain mental competenceis a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time • Used answers from experienced teachers to make a standardized interview to give to children about certain problems that are appropriate for certain ages to solve ○ Result of testing was a score called the mental age  8 year old child could solve problems that a 10 year old can do-mentalage:10 • German PsychologistWilliam Stern mental age expanded to Stern's intelligencequotient : IQ=(mental age/chronologicalage)x100 ○ Therefore if a kid who was performing at exactly his or her age would have an IQ of 100 • Today's test no long consists of mental age ○ Works well with children • Today, intelligence tests provide an IQ score that is based on one's performancerelative to the score of other people the same age • Developedthe first intelligencetest to assess the mentalskills of French school children Binet's Legacy: An Intelligence Testing Industry Emerges • Stanford-Binet test introduce in 1916 ○ Used to measure intelligence of the men in WW1 Nature of Intelligence Nature of Intelligence • 2 major approaches ○ Psychometricapproach  Attempts to map the structure of intellect and to discover the kinds of mental competenciesthat under lie test performance  Statistical study of psychologicaltests  Researchers administer diverse measure of mental abilities and then correlate them with one another  If tests cluster with one another mathematicallythen performanceon these tests underlies mental skills  Factor analysis-statisticaltechnique that reduces a large number of measures to a smaller number of clusters or factors, with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with variables in other clusters  The g factor: intelligence as a general mental capacity □ Spearman concluded that intellectual performance is determined partly by a g factor (general intelligence) and partly by whateverspecial abilities might be required to perform that particular task  G factor constitutesthe core of intelligence ◊ Therefore spearman argues that your performancein mathematicswould depend mainly on your general intelligence, but also your specific ability to learn math □ Frank Schmidt and John Hunter concluded that measures of the g factor predict job success even better than do measures of specific abilities tailored to individual jobs □ David Lubinski concluded that 'g' is the most important to date  Intelligence as Specific mental ablities □ Thurstone concluded that human mental performancedepends not on a general factor, but rather on 7 distinct abilities which are called primary mental abilities S-space Reasoning about visual scenes V-verbal Understanding verbal comprehension statements W-word fluency Producing verbal statements  N-number facility Dealing with numbers P-perceptual Recognizing visual speed patterns M-rote memory memorizing R -reasoning Dealing with novel problems  Therefore,focus on two clusters and attach special significance to high correlations within each cluster  Crystalized and fluid Intelligence: □ Two distinct but related subtypes of g (correlation □ Two distinct but related subtypes of g (correlation of 0.50)  Crystalized intelligence-ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems ◊ Improvesduring adulthood and remains well into late adulthood  Fluid intelligence-ability to deal with novel problem-solvingsituations for which personal experience does not provide a solution ◊ Begins to decline as people enter into late adulthood  Carroll`s Three-Stratum Model: A Modern Synthesis □ Three-Stratum of cognitive abilities  General (stratum III)-thought to underlie most mental ability : g factor  Broad (stratum II)-8 broad intellectual factors arranged from left to right in terms of the extent to which they are influenced by g  Narrow (stratum I)-70 highly specific cognitive abilities that feed into the broad stratum ○ Cognitive process approach  Study of specific thought processes that underlie those mental competencies CognitiveProcess Theories  Triarchictheory of intelligence-addressesboth the psychological processesinvolved in intelligent behavior and the diverse forms that intelligence can take. There are 3 specific components □ Metacomponents  Higher order processes used to plan and regulate task performance ◊ Finding problems,formulating hypothesis and strategies  Fundamental sources of individual difference in fluid intelligence ◊ More intelligent people spend more time developing strategies □ Performancecomponents  Actual mental processesused to perform the task ◊ Perceptual processing, retrieving appropriate memoriesand schemas from long term memory □ Knowledge acquisition components  Allows us to learn from experience,store information in memoryand combine new insights from previously acquired info ◊ From crystalized intelligence  3 different classes of adaptive problem solving and that people differ in the intellectual strengths in these areas: □ Analytical intelligence-academicoriented problem solving skills measured by traditional tests □ Practical intelligence-skills needed to cope with everydaydemands  Read people, practical applications □ Creative intelligence-mentalskills needed to deal with novel problems with novel problems  Triarchic theories includes these 3 types of intelligence Broader conceptionsof Intelligence: Beyond Mental Competencies • Gardener`s Multiple Intelligences ○ Howard Gardeners defines 8 distinct varieties of adaptive abilities  Linguistic abilities -use language well  Logical mathematicintelligence-reason mathematically and logically  Visuospatial intelligence-solve spatial problems like architecture  Musical intelligence-perceive pitch and rhythm and produce music  Bodily kinesthetic intelligence-performmovementslike athletes dancers  Interpersonal intelligence-understand and relate to others  Intrapersonal intelligence-understanding oneself  Naturalistic intelligence-understand phenomena such as zoologists ○ There is a 9th possible intelligence called existential intelligence which is to question about existence and life and death ○ First 3 intelligence is measured by existing intelligence tests • EmotionalIntelligence ○ Ability to read others` emotionsaccurately, to respond to them appropriately, to motivateoneself, to be aware of one`s own emotionsand to regulate own emotionalresponses ○ 4 components:  Branch 1-perceiving emotions-accuracyto judge emotionalexpressions in photographs  Branch 2-using emotionsto facilitate thought-asking ppl to identify emotionthat would best enhance certain thinking  Branch 3-understanding emotions-changeof intensity type under certain conditions, understanding blended emotions  Branch 4-managing emotions-askinghow they can change emotions ○ Emotionallyintelligent ppl form stronger bonds, greater success in career& marriage
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