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chapter_11-_motivation notes.pdf

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PSYC 1010
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Chapter 11- Motivation and Emotion January-11-12 11:02 PM Motivation-processthat influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal -directed behavior PERSPECTIVESON MOTIVATOIN • Instinct Theory and EvolutionaryPsychology ○ Instinct-inheritedpredisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus  Motivatemuch of our behavior  Does not depend on learning ○ Psychologicalmotiveshave evolutionaryunderpinnings that are expressed through the actions of genes ○ Adaptive significanceof behavior is a key to understanding motivation  Why are we such social creatures? • Homeostasisand Drive Theory Homeostasis- state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain. Maintaining homeostasisrequires a sensory mechanismfor detecting changes in the internal environment,a response system that can restore equilibrium , and a control centre that receivesinformation from the sensors and activatesthe response system Drive theory of motivation,physiological disruptions to homeostasisproduce drives, states of internal tension that motivatean organism to behave in ways that reduce tension • Incentive Expectancy Theories ○ Incentives represent environmental stimuli that pull and organism toward a goal  Al reinforcementinvolvessome kind of biological drive reduction □ food is incentive because it reduces drive of hunger  View no longer held  Pull of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behavior, even n the absence of biological need □ Having dessert even if you are full ○ Expectancy x Value theory proposes that goal- directed behavior is jointly determined by 2 factors:  The strength of a person's expectationthat particular behaviors lead to a goal  The value the individual places on that goal (incentivevalue) ○ Motivation-expectancyX incentive value ○ Extrinsic motivation- performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment  Student reads textbookto get an A ○ Intrinsic motivation- performing an activity for it's own sake (find it enjoyable)  Student reads textbookbecause it is interesting ○ Can external incentives ever decrease motivation?  Overjustificationhypothesis- giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may overjustify that behavior and reduce intrinsic that they intrinsically enjoy may overjustify that behavior and reduce intrinsic motivation • Psychodynamicand Humanistic Theories ○ Psychoanalytictheory highlighted the motivationalunderworld  Freud- much of our behavior results from a never ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defenses used to keep then under control  Emphasizes that along with conscious mental processes,unconscious motivesand tensions guide how we act and feel ○ Maslow proposed the concept of a need hierarchy,a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottomand growth needs at the top  Deficiency needs □ Physical and social survival  Human growth needs □ Developpotential  Self actualization □ Peak of the mountain ○ Self actualization represents the need to fulfill our potential, and is the ultimate human motive ○ Self-determination theory focuses on 3 fundamental psychological needs:  Competence-humanneed to master new challenges and perfect skills  Autonomy -people experience their actions as a result of free choice without outside interference  Relatedness- desire to form meaningful bonds with others □ People most fulfilled when they are able to satisfy these fundamental needs ○ Idea: as needs are met- progress to full potential HUNGER AND WEIGHT REGULATION • The physiology of hunger ○ Metabolism-the body's rate of energy utilisation ○ Homeostaticmechanisms help regulate eating ○ Eating not necessarily linked to immediateenergy needs ○ Basal metabolism-theresting, continuous metabolic work of the body cells  2/3 of the energy we normally use goes here ○ Satiety-statewhere we no longer feel hungry as a result of eating ○ Three points:  Many of us believe that hunger occurs when we begin to run low on energy and that we feel full when immediateenergy supplies are restored □ Body does not monitor its immediateenergy supplies but this info interacts with other signals to regulate food intake  Homeostaticmechanisms are designed to prevent you from running low on energy in the first place □ Organism does not ear until its energy supply starts to become low would be at a serious survival disadvantage  Many researchers believe that there is a set point-an internal physiological standard-around which body weight is regulated standard-around which body weight is regulated ○ Signals that start and terminate a meal  A.L. Washburn swallowed a balloon and every time he felt hungry, he inflated the balloon □ Other research indicates that hunger pangs do not depend on an empty stomach, or any stomachat all  Glucose- a simple sugar that is the body's major source of immediatelyuseable fuel  As we eat, several bodily signals combine and ultimately cause us to end out meal  CCK- is released into your bloodstream by the small intestine as food arrives from the stomach ○ Signals that regulate general appetite weight  Leptin- hormonethat decreases appetite, secreted into the blood stream by fat cels ○ Brain mechanisms  2 regions in the hypothalamus: □ Later hypothalamus-hunger on □ Ventromedialhypothalamus -hunger off • PsychologicalAspects of Hunger ○ Positivelyreinforced by the good taste of food ○ Negatively reinforced by hunger reduction ○ 1 in 5 female adolescent report being happy with their body • Environmentaland cultural factors ○ Good tasting good positively reinforces eating and increases food consumption ○ Food varietyincreases consumptions ○ Through classical conditioning, we learn to associate the smell and sight of food with its taste, and these food cues can trigger hunger ○ We typically eat more when dining with other people than we eat alone (meals take longer with ppl) ○ We are more comfortableselecting from along familiar foods • Obesity ○ 500% increase in obesity in children  Does not pose a health risk, but exposed to stereotypesand prejudice ○ Often blamed on lack of willpower, a weak character, or emotionaldisturbances, but in reality obese people eat to cope with stress or react more as the aroma and appearance of food ○ Genes and environment  Heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue  Reasons for obesity: □ Abundance of inexpensive, tasty, high fat foods available almost everywhere □ A cultural emphasis on getter the best value which contributes to the supersizing of menu items □ Technological advances that decrease the need for daily physical activityand encourage a sedentary lifestyle □ High levels of dopamine in the brain's reward pathway make somepeople sensitive to the rewarding properties of food ○ Dieting and weight loss  Substantial weight gain also makes it harder to exercise vigorouslyand dieting slows basal metabolism because the body responds to good deprivation with decreased energy expenditure SEXUAL MOTIVATION ○ people engage sex to express love, foster intimacy, build one's ego, fulfill one's "duty", conformto peer pressure, get over broken relationship, earn money • Sexual behavior: patterns and Changes ○ Sample of 18-59year olds- 70% have sex at least a few times per month  Single adults who are not married but live with a sexual partner are the most  Single adults who are not married but live with a sexual partner are the most sexually active followedby married adults  25% of men and 10% of women masturbate at least 1 or more times per week  60% of men and 40% of women masturbate at least once per year  85% percent of men and 45% of womenwith regular partners masturbate at least once per year ○ Males tend to have their first sexual intercourse experience one to two years earlier than females ○ Premaritalsex  Increased in last half of 20th century  Changing social norms  Tendency to delay marriage  Trend has levelled off and may be reversing • The Physiologyof Sex ○ Sexual response cycle  Most people go through a 4 stage sexual response cycle □ Excitement phase- arousal builds rapidly, blood flow increases to arteries in and around the genital organs, nipples, and women's breasts called Vasocongestion-penis and clitoris becomeserect, vagina becomes lubricated, muscle tension increases throughout the body □ Plateau phase-respiration, heart rate, Vasocongestionand muscle contraction continue to build until there is enough tension to trigger orgasm □ Orgasm phase-males: rhythmic contraction
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