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chapter_12-development notes.pdf

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Psychology
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PSYC 1010
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Chapter 12-Development Over the Lifespan January-13-12 4:51 PM DEVELOPMENTALPSYCHOLOGY: ISSUES AND METHODS • Developmental psychology-changesin biological, physical , psychologicaland behavioral processes as we age • 4 broad issues ○ Nature and nurture-our developmenthereditary or environment? ○ Critical and sensitive periods-criticalperiods is an age range where certain experiences must occur for normal development. Sensitive period is an optimal age range for certain experiences but not abnormal if happens at another time ○ Continuity versus discontinuity- is developmentcontinuous or gradual? Or is it discontinuous progressing through qualitatively distinct stages (tree gradual, butterfly stages) ○ Stability versus change-characteristics remain consistent as we age? • 5 developmentalfunctions: A. No change- an ability present at or before birth that remain relativelyconstant across the lifespan B. Continuous change (continuity)- an ability not present at birth that develops gradually over months or years and then remains constant over age C. Stages (discontinuity)-progressesin stages with rapid shifts from lower to higher level D. Inverted U- shaped function-ability that emerges after birth, peaks, and disappears with age E. U- shaped function- ability present in life, disappears temporarily,and re-emergeslater • Cohort-group born at the same time • Longitudinal design- same people studied over a period of time ○ Research 25 year old only throughout the years • Cross sectional design-peopleof varying ages studied simultaneously ○ 20, 25, 30..they come back in 5 years...therefore25, 30, 35 • Sequential design-combinesthe cross sectional and longitudinal approaches ○ Most comprehensive,but time consuming and costly PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • Consist of 3 stages of physical growth: ○ Germinal stage-first two weeks of developmentbeginning when one sperm fertilizes an egg ○ Embryonic stage-2nd week to 8th after conception (called an embryo)  Placenta carries membranesthat allow nutrients to pass from the mother`sblood to the umbilical cord □ Umbilical cord contains blood vessels that carries nutrients and oxygen to the embryo and waste products from the embryo to mother ○ Fetal stage- lasts until birth, 24 weeks eye opens, 28 weeks age of viability meaning that likely to survive in event of premature birth • Genetics and Sex Determination ○ 23rd pair determinesthe baby`s sex  Genetic female`s 23rd pair contains 2 chromosomes(XX)  Genetic males 23rd pair contains an X and Y chromosomes(XY) □ Y chromosomecontains specific gene known as TDF (testisdetermining factor) gene that triggers male sexual development ○ Union o an e with a sperm cell having a Y chromosomeresults in an XY combiationand, therefore a boy. A sperm containing an X chromosomeproduces XX combinationand so a baby girl ○ 6 to 8 weeks after conception- TDF initiates the developmentof testes • Environmentinfluences Teratogens- are environmentalagents that cause abnormal prenatal development ○ Teratogens- are environmentalagents that cause abnormal prenatal development ○ Placenta prevents dangerous substances rom reaching embryo and fetus ○ Sexually transmitteddiseases can pass from mother to fetus and produce brain damage, blindness and deafness  Women with untreated syphilis, 25 % dead fetuses ○ Mercury, lead radiation ○ Fetal alcohol syndrome INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD • The amazing newborn ○ Newborn sensation and perception  Preferential looking procedure-placed infants on their backs and showed them two or more stimuli and filmed their eyes to record how long they looked at each stimulus □ Preferred complexpatterns  Infants look at grating when the stripes are wide, as it narrows, at some point preference declines  Newborns turn toward off centered auditory and tactile targets ○ Newborn learning  Within hours o birth, distinguish familiar face o their mother from a stranger, look longer at mother`s face  Visual habituation procedure- the same stimulus is presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines (usually by 50%)  Infants look longer at the novel rather than the familiar stimulus  Auditory habituation procedure-to study infant memory □ Recorded 2 day`s old head turning an off centred , recorded speech sound. After about 16 presentations,infants stopped turning to face the now familiar sound □ They were not simple fatigued because  By the end of habituation, many infants were turning away rom the sound, perhaps trying to avoid it  They readily turned toward a novel sound indicating that they could discriminate between some adult speech sound  Partial habituation to the sound lasted or at least 24 hours reflecting the operation of long term memory ○ Sensory-perceptualdevelopment  Visual field in each eye expands to almost adult size by 6 months of age (20/800 birth, 20/1006 months)  Perceptual developmentshow improvementwith age during infancy  Auditory pattern perception is advance in young infants who can detect tiny changes in adult speech sounds that differentiate one word from another  Young infants also appear to perceive music as adults do  Sensory perceptual processes are exercised in the uterus, and they all, including vision, operate at somelevel at birth • Physical, Brain and MotorDevelopment  Maturation-genetically programmed biological process that governs out growth, bodies, and movement  Cephalocaudal principle-thetendency or developmentto proceed in a head to foot direction  Proximodistal principle-developmentbeings along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermostparts ○ The young brain  Birth-25% of adult weight, 6 months-50%of its adult weight, 5 years- 90% of adult weight  Rapid brain growth during infancy and early childhood slows in later childhood ○ Motordevelopment  Increases in the density of neural networks during early developmentfrom the human cerebral cortex human cerebral cortex  Reflexes-automaticinform behaviors elicited by specific stimuli present at birth ○ Environmentaland Cultural Influences  Environmentinfluences motor development □ Diet-malnutritionstunts growth □ Enriched environment-develop heavier brains □ Physical touch-less=stunts motordevelopment □ 3 points that apply across the realm of human development:  Biology sets limits on environmentalinfluences  Environmentalinfluences can be powerful  Biological and environmentalfactors interact • Cognitive development ○ Piaget`s stage model  Intrigued by patterns of errors children made on test questions - commonwith same age  Proposedthat children`s thinking changes qualitatively with age, and it differs from the way adults think  According to Piaget, 2 key processes by which new experiences are involved □ Assimilation-newexperiences are incorporated into existing schemas □ Accommodation-newexperience cause existing schemas to change  Sensorimotor □ Birth to 2 years □ Infant understands world through sensory and motorexperiences □ Achieves object permanence □ Emergence of symbolicthough  Preoperational □ 2-7 years □ Symbolic thinking; child uses worlds and images to represent objects and experiences; pretend plat □ Thinking displays ego centricism, irreversibility,and centration  Concrete operational □ 7-12 □ Child can think logically about concreteevents □ Grasps concepts of conservationand serial ordering  Formal operational □ 12 and on □ Adolescent can think more logically, abstractly and flexibly □ Can form hypothesis and test them systematically ○ Assessmentof Piaget`s theory  Piaget`s universality principle □ Cognitive abilities associated with Piaget`s 4 stages occur in the same order across cultures □ Culture influences cognitive development  Early understanding of the physical world □ Expectationsexperiment-examineinfant`s understand o basic concepts ○ Complexity of stages  Cognitive developmentwithin each stage seems to proceed inconsistently ○ Vygotskythe social context of cognitive development  Zone of proximal development-difference between what a while can do independently and what a child can do with assistance from adults or more advanced peers □ Important because it can help recognize what children may soon be able to do by themselves □ Emphasizes that people can help to move a child`s cognitive development forward within limits dictated by the child`s biological maturation ○ Information processing approaches  Information search strategies  Information search strategies  Processing speed, attention and response inhibition □ Speed with which children process informationbecomes faster with age  Working memoryand long term memory □ Improveswith age  Continuity versus discontinuity ○ Theory of mind: children`s understanding of mental states  Theory of mind-refers to a person`s beliefs about the mind and the ability to understand other people`s mental states  Lying and deception provide evidence for theory of mind  Perspectivetaking and early word learning  Rudimentary understanding develops around 3 to 4 • Social- emotionaland personality development ○ Children form attachmentsand each child displays a unique personality- distinctive et somewhatconsistent pattern of thinking, feeling and behaving ○ Emotion  Emotionalresponse communicateour inner states to other people and influence how other respond to us  18 months- infant developssense of self □ Display varietyof basic motions □ Envy, embarrassment,empathy can begin to emerge  2 years- learn rules and performance standards □ Display guilt, pride and shame □ Shows guilt b avoiding eye contact, shrugging shoulders  Emotion regulation □ Processwhere we evaluate and modify our emotionalreactions □ Emotionalcompetenceincreases □ Through socialization and hereditary contribute to emotionaldevelopment ○ Temperament  Biologically based styple of behavioral and emotionalreactions  Relativelystable but predictions are difficult  Research suggests □ Extremetemperamentalstyles can predict some behaviors in later ears  Top 15% of behaviorally inhibited and uninhibited infants remained so from infant to 7 1/2 years  Different genetic profiles for dopamine receptor among aggressive and non-aggressive children ○ Erikson's psychosocialtheory  Believed that personality develops through a series of 8 major psychosocialstages  To movefrom one stage to another you need to overcomeeach "crisis"  Each stage of life creates new opportunities □ Personality is not fixed in childhood □ Themes/patternsthat emerge early in childhood= important later in life  Erikson's childhood stages □ Basic trust vs mistrust (first year)  How adequately our needs are met, how much love and attention we receive during the first year of life, we develop a basic trust or mistrust of the world □ Autonomyvs shame and doubt (1-2 years)  Ready to exercise individuality  If parents restrict children or make harsh demands during toilet training, children develop shame and doubt about their abilities and later lack the courage to be independent □ Initiative versus guilt (3-5)  Display curiosity about the world  If allowed freedom to explore and receiveanswers to their questions, develop sense of initiative develop sense of initiative  If held back or punished, develop guilt about their desires and suppress their curiosity □ Industry vs inferiority (6-12_  Children who experience pride and encouragementin mastering tasks, develop industry,  Repeated failure and lack of praise for trying leads to a sense of inferiority □ Indentity vs role confusion (12-20)  Member of a family to an individual  Who are you?  What makes up your identity?  How to do you fit into society?  What is your belief system? ◊ Politics, career choices  What your goal is in society □ Intimacy vs isolation (20-40)  Child from family to making a new family group □ Generativityvs stagnation (40-65)  What we might be involved- produce offspring  To provide for next generation- apprentices, training people  Generating info for next generation  Stagnation is when you don see work going on □ Integrity vs despair (65 +)  Look back on life ◊ Relationships, work  Did you do everything you wanted to do?  Feel joy? Or despair? This model captures major issues that developing children confront ○ Attachment  Imprinting-suddenbiologically primed form of attachment  In some species, offspring must be exposed to parents within hours after entering the world to attach to them  Attachment- strong emotionalbond between children and primary caregivers □ First few years of life seem to be a sensitive period when we most easily form a secure bond with caregivers that enhances our adjustment later in life ○ Attachment process  Harlow □ Contact is more important than nourishment in fostering attachment □ Infant monkeysbecame more attached to the cloth mother than the wired mother . When exposed to scary situations, they would run to cloth mother  Attachment process (Bowlby, 1969) □ Indiscriminate attachment (newborns)  Emit behaviors toward everyone.In turn these behaviors evoke caregiving from adults □ Discriminateattachment behavior (3 months)  Direct their attachment behaviors more toward familiar caregivers than toward strangers □ Specific attachment behavior (7-8
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