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Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span - development - the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 439-443) - Prenatal development proceeds through the germinal, embryonic, and fetal stages as the zygote is differentiated into a human organism. The embryonic stage is a period of great vulnerability, as most physiological structures are being formed - Maternal malnutrition during the prenatal period has been linked to birth complication and other subsequent problems. Maternal drug use can be very dangerous, although the risks depend on the drug used, the dose, and the phase of prenatal development. - Fetal alcohol syndrome is a collection of congenital problems caused by a motherʼs excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. a variety of maternal illnesses can interfere with prenatal development. - Genital herpes and AIDS can be transmitted to offspring during the birth process. Many problems can be avoided if expectant mothers have access to good health care. Progress before Birth: Prenatal Development - development begins with conception - occurs when fertilization creates a zygote - a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg - prenatal period - extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy - development is rapid The Course of Prenatal Development - divided into three phases: (1) the germinal stage (first two weeks) (2) the embryonic stage (two weeks to two months) (3) the fetal stage (two months to birth) GERMINAL STAGE - germinal stage - the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception - begins with fertilization leading to a zygote - within 36 hours - rapid cell division begins - microscopic mass of cells migrates along motherʼs fallopian tube to the uterine cavity - ~seventh day - implantation in uterine wall - many zygotes are rejected at this point -> 1/5 pregnancies end with the woman never being aware that conception occurred - during implantation, placenta begins to form - placenta - a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the motherʼs bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother. - across thin membranes that block the passage of blood cells - fetal and maternal bloodstreams separate. Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span EMBRYONIC STAGE - embryonic stage - the second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month. - most of the viral organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing organism now called an embryo - heart, spine, brain emerge gradually - embryo already beginning to look human - period of great vulnerability because virtually al the basic physiological structures are being formed - Most miscarriages occur during this period - Most major structural birth defects are also due to problems that occur during this stage FETAL STAGE - fetal stage - the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth - first two months - rapid bodily growth, muscles, and bones begin to form - developing organism now called a fetus - capable of physical movements as skeletal structure hardens - organs continue to grow and begin to function - sex organs start to develop during the third month - final three months - brain cells multiply quickly, layer of fat deposited under the skin to provide insulation and the respiratory and digestive systems mature. - between 22 weeks and 26 weeks the fetus reaches the age of viability - the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development - external environment can affect fetus indirectly through the mother - motherʼs eating habits, drug use, and physical health among other things, can affect prenatal development and have long-term health consequences MATERNAL NUTRITION - too much or too little weight gain during gestation is associated with a variety of birth complications - should follow Canadaʼs Food Guide to Healthy Eating and maintain a relatively active lifestyle - fetus requires a variety of essential nutrients - severe malnutrition major problem in underdeveloped nations here food shortages are common - recent research suggests that prenatal malnutrition may have negative effects decades after a childʼs birth - prenatal malnutrition has been linked to vulneravility to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adolescence and early adulthood - low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and diabetes in middle adulthood Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span MATERNAL DRUG USE - most drugs consumed by a pregnant woman can pass through the membranes of the placenta - virtually all “recreational” drugs can be harmful, with sedative, narcotics, and cocaine being particularly dangerous - problems can also be caused by a great variety of drugs prescribed and even over the counter drugs - effect on fetus depends on drug, dose and phase of prenatal development - fetal alcohol syndrome - a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy - typical problems include - microcephaly (small head), heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, and delayed mental and motor development - one of the leading causes of mental retardation and is related to an increased incidence of depression, suicide, and criminal behaviour in adulthood - even normal social drinking during pregnancy can lead to deficits in IQ, reaction time, motor skills, attention span, and math skills, and increased impulsive, antisocial, and delinquent behaviour - Tobacco use - reduce flow of oxygen and nutrients to fetus - increase risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, prematurity, and other birthc complications MATERNAL ILLNESS - fetus defenceless against infections because immune system matures relatively late - placenta screens out quite a number of infectious agents - maternal illness can interdere with prenatal development - severity of damage depends on when mother contracts the illness - Genital herpes and AIDS - mother can transmit to offspring - improved antiviral drugs can reduce percentage of women who pass the virus for AIDS to their babies - many prenatal dangers are preventable if pregnant women recieve adequate care and guidance from health professionals KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 444-447) - Motor development follows cephaliocaudal (head-to-foot) and proximodistal (centre- outward) trends and depends in part on physical growth, which appears to be more uneven than preciously appreciated. - Early motor development depends on both maturation and learning. Developmental norms for motor skills and other types of development are only group averages, and parents should not be alarmed if their childrenʼs progress does not match these norms exactly. Cultural variations in the pacing of motor development demonstrate the importance of learning - Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are both well suited to developmental research. Corss-sectional studies are quicker, easier, and less expensive to conduct. Longitudinal studies are more sensitive to developmental changes. - Temperamental differences among children are apparent during the first few months of life. Thomas and Chess found that most infants could be classified as easy, slow-to- Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span warm-up, or difficult children. These differences in temperament are fairly stable and probably have a genetic basis. The Wondrous Years of Childhood Exploring the World: Motor Development - motor development - the progression of muscular co-ordination required for physical activities BASIC PRINCIPLES - cephlocaudal trend - the head-to-foot direction of motor development - proximodistal trend - the centre-outward direction of motor development - children gain control over their torso before their extremities - infants typically grow roughly triple their birth weight during the first year, while height increases by about 45% - is used to be assumed that this physical growth involved a gradual, steady process that yielded smooth continuous growth curves - but more recently, demonstration that early growth is actually very irregular - growth spurts tended to be accompanied by restlessness and irritability - early progress in motor skills has traditionally been attributed almost entirely to the process of maturation - development that reflects the gradual unfolding of oneʼs genetic blueprint. - product of genetically programmed physical changes that come with age as opposed to experience and learning - recent research however has taken a closer look at hteh process of motor development and suggests that infants are active agents ratehr than passive organisms waiting for their brain and limbs to mature --> driving force behind motor development is infantsʼ ongoing exploration of their world and their need to master specific tasks UNDERSTANDING DEVELOPMENTAL NORMS - developmental norms - indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviours and abilities - parents should not be alarmed if their childrenʼs progress does not match these norms exactly. CULTURAL VARIATIONS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE - relatively rapid motor development has been observed in some cultures that provide special practice in basic motor skills - relatively slow motor development has been found in some cultures that discourage motor exploration - demonstrate that environmental factors can accelerate or slow early motor development - similarities across cultures in the sequence and timing of early motor development out weight the differences - --> early motor development depends to a considerable extent on maturation. later motor development is another matter, however. Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament - infants show considerable variability in temperament - refers to characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity - longitudinal design investigators - observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time - takes years to complete, participants often drop out because they move away or lose interest - more sensitive to developmental influences and changes than cross-sectional designs - cross-sectional design investigators - compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time - can be completed more quickly, easily and cheaply - Thomas and Chess found that most infants could be classified as easy, slow-to-warm- up, or difficult children - found that temperamental individuality is well established by the time infant is two to three months old -childʼs temperament at three months was a fair predictor of the childʼs temperament at age ten - other research more or less agreed with Thomas and Chess however indicated that temperament tended to stabilize a little later (age one or two) than Thomas and Chess suggested - research by Kagan - 15-20% of infants display inhibited temperament - shyness, timidity and wariness of unfamiliar people, objects and events - 25%-30% of infants display uninhibited temperament - less restrained, approaching unfamiliar people, objects, and events with little trepidation --> evidence suggests that these temperamental styles have a genetic basis and that they are reasonably stable into middle childhood KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 448-453) - Infantsʼ attachments to their caregivers develop gradually. Separation anxiety usually appears around six to eight months of age. Research shows that attachment emerges out of an interplay between infant and mother. Infant-mother attachments fall into three categories: secure, axious-ambivalent, and avoidant. A secure attachment fosters self- esteem, persistence, curiosity, and self-reliance, among other desirable traits. - Bonding during the first few hours after birth does not appear to be crucial to secure attachment. The effects of daycare on attachment are a source of concern, but the evidence is hotly debated. Cultural variations in childrearing can affect the patterns of attachment seen in a society. - A stage is a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behaviour are exhibited. Stage theories assume that individuals must progress through a series of specified stages in a particular order and that development is marked by major discontinuities. - Erik Eriksonʼs theory of personality development proposed that individuals evolve through eight stages over the life span. In each stage the person wrestles with two opposing tendencies evoked by the stages psychosocial crisis. Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span Early Emotional Development: Attachment - attachment - refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers - infantʼs attachment to their mother is not instantaneous - 6-8 months, infants begin to show a preference for their motherʼs company and often protest when separated from her - first manifestation of separation anxiety - emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment --> typically peeks at around 14-18 months and then begins to decline PATTERNS OF ATTACHMENT - Mary Ainsworth - suggested that attachment emerges out of a complex interplay between infant and mother - mothers who are sensitive and responsive to their childrenʼs needs tend to evoke more secure attachments than mothers who are relatively insensitive or inconsistent in their responding - correlation is modest - other factors involved -->infants are active participants who influence the process with their crying, smiling, fussing, and babbling. difficult infants who are prone to distress, spit up most of their food, make bathing a major battle, refuse to go to sleep, and rarely smile may sometimes undermine a motherʼs responsiveness - secure attachment - infants play and explore comfortably with their mother present, become visibly upset when she leaves, and are quickly calmed by her return - anxious ambivalent attachment - infants appear anxious even when their mother is near and protest excessively when she leaves but they are not particularly comforted when she returns - avoidant attachment - children seek little contact with their mother and often are not distressed when she leaves - correlation between infant temperament and attachment security are modest, although evidence suggests that insecure attachments occur more often with temperamentally difficult infants who are fussy, fretful, and irritable EFFECTS OF SECURE ATTACHMENT - evidence suggests that the quality of these attachment relationship can have important consequence for children - infants with a relatively secure attachment tend to become resilient, competent toddlers with high self-esteem - preschool years - more persistence, curiosity, self-reliance, and leadership and have better peer relations, while experiencing fewer negative emotions and more positive emotions - middle childhood - display better social skills and have richer friendship networks than youngsters who lacked a secure attachment during infancy - research suggests that children who have a secure attachment to both their parents are better off than those who have a secure attachment to only one parent Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span - all relevant data on attachment effects are correlational so we cannot assume that secure attachment causes all these favourable outcomes DAYCARE AND ATTACHMENT - does frequent infant-mother separations disrupt the attachment process - Belsky suggests that babies who receive non-maternal care for more than 20 hours per week have an increased risk of developing insecure attachments to their mothers - However... - even the most “alarming: data suggest that the proportion of daycare infants who exhibit insecure attachments is only slightly higher than the norm in North American society and even lower than the norm in some other societies - tee preponderance of evidence suggest that daycare is not harmful to childrenʼs attachment relationships - given the deprived childrearing conditions found in many homes, there is evidence that daycare can have beneficial effects on some youngstersʼ social development CULTURE AND ATTACHMENT - separation anxiety emerges in children at about six to eight months and peaks at about 14-18 months in cultures around the world - suggest that attachment is a universal feature of human development - cultural variations in the proportion of infants who fall into the three attachment categories described by Ainsworth - researchers have attributed these disparities in attachment patterns to cultural variations in childrearing practices - critics assert that there are significant cultural variations in what represents a secure parent-child attachment and in the effects of secure attachment EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVES ON ATTACHMENT - Bowlby analyzed attachment in terms of its survival value for infants - contemporary evolutionary theorists emphasize how attachment contributes to parentsʼ and childrenʼs reproductive fitness Becoming Unique: Personality Development - Freud - claimed that the basic foundation of an individualʼs personality is firmly laid down by age five - Erik Erikson proposed a sweeping revision of Freudʼs theory that has proven influential - concluded that events in early childhood leave permanent stamp on adult personality, however, Erikson theorized that personality continues to evolve over the entire life span - devised a stage theory of personality development - stage - a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behaviour are exhibited and certain capacities become established - Stage theories assume that (1) individuals must progress through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous stage (2) progress through these stages is strongly related to age Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span (3) development is marked by major discontinuities that usher in dramatic transitions in behaviour ERIKSONʼS STAGE THEORY - partitioned the life span into eight stages each of which brings a psychosocial crisis involving transitions in important social relationships - according to Erikson, personality is shaped by how individuals deal with these psychosocial crises - each psychosocial crises involves a struggle between two opposing tendencies - Viewed each stage as a tug of war that determined the subsequent balance between opposing polarities in personality --> First four stages (1) Trust versus Mistrust - first year of life, when infant has to depend completely on adults to take care of its basic needs - if basic biological needs are met by caregivers and sound attachments are formed, child should develop an optimistic, trusting attitude toward the world (2) Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt - during the second and third years of life, when parents begin toilet training and other efforts to regulate the childʼs behaviour - child must begin to take some personal responsibility for feeding, dressing, and bathing - if all goes well - acquires a sense of self-sufficiency (3) Initiative versus Guilt - roughly from ages three to six, children experiment and take initiatives that may sometimes conflict with their parentsʼ rules - Over-controlling parents may begin to instil feelings of guilt, and self-esteem may suffer - Parents need to support their childrenʼs emerging independence while maintaining appropriate controls (4)Industry versus Inferiority - six through puberty, challenge of learning to function socially is extended beyond the family to the broader social realm of the neighbourhood and school - Children who are able to function effectively in this less nurturing social sphere where productivity is highly valued should learn to value achievement and to take pride in accomplishment, resulting in a sense of competence EVALUATING ERIKSONʼS THEORY - accounts for both continuity and transition in personality development - transition by showing how new challenges in social relations stimulate personality development throughout life Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span - continuity by drawing connections between early childhood experiences and aspects of adult personality - negative side - his theory has depended heavily on illustrative case studies, which are open to varied interpretations - the theory provides an “idealized” description of “typical” developmental patterns --> not well suited for explaining the enormous personality differences that exist among people KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER (pages 453-461) - According to Piagetʼs theory of cognitive development, the key advance during the sensorimotor period is the childʼs gradual recognition of the permanence of objects. The preoperational period is marked by certain deficiencies in thinking- notably, centration, irreversibility, and egocentrism. - During the concrete operations period, children develop the ability to perform operations on metal representations, making them capable of conservation and hierarchical classification. The stage of formal operations ushers in more abstract, systematic, and logical thought. - Piaget may have underestimated some aspects of childrenʼs cognitive development and his theory, like other stage theories, does not explain individual differences very well. Nonetheless, his work has greatly improved psychologyʼs understanding of cognitive development. Neo-Piagetian theories have extended Piagetʼs formulations by emphasizing the role of information processing concepts. - Recent research has shown that infants appear to understand surprisingly complex concepts that they have had virtually no opportunity to learn about, leading some theorists to conclude that basic cognitive abilities are biologically built into humansʼ neural architecture. Childrenʼs understanding of the mind seems to turn a corner between ages three and four. - According to Kohlberg, moral reasoning progresses through six stages that are related to age and determined by cognitive development. Age-related progress in moral reasoning has been found in research, although a great deal of overlap occurs between adjacent stages. Growth of Thought: Cognitive Development - cognitive development - transitions in youngstersʼ patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving OVERVIEW OF PIAGETʼS STAGE THEORY - a stage theory of development - proposed taht youngsters progress through four major stages of conitive development, which are characterized by fundamentally different thought processes: (1) the sensorimotor period (birth to age two) (2) the preoperational period (ages two to seven) (3) the concrete operational period (ages seven to 11) (4) the formal operational period (age 11 onward Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span - regarded his age norms as approximations an acknowledged that transitional ages may vary - Piaget asserted that interaction with the environment and maturation gradually alter the way children think - children progress in their thinking through the complementary processes of assimilation and accommodation - assimilation - involves interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them - accommodation - involves changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences (1) Sensorimotor Period - Coordination of sensory input and motor responses; development of object permanence - major development during this stage is the gradual appearance of symbolic thought - at the beginning of this stage, a childʼs behaviour is dominated by innate reflexes, but by the end of the stage, the child can use mental symbols to represent objects - object permanence - develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible (2) Preoperational Period - Development of symbolic thought marked by irreversibility, centration, and egocentrism - ages two to seven - children gradually improve their use of mental images - Piaget emphasizes the shortcomings in preoperational thought - beaker test - explained in lecture - children had not yet mastered the principle of conservation - Piagetʼs term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance --> Piaget says this is due to basic flaws in preoperational thinking - centration, irreversitility, and egocentrism - centration - the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects - when working on the conservation problem with water, preoperational children tend to concentrate on the height of the water while ignoring the width - irreversibility - the inability to envision reversing an action - preoperational children canʼt mentally “undo” something --> they donʼt think about what would happen if the water were poured back from the tall beaker into the original beaker - egocentrism - in thinking is characterized by a limited ability to share another personʼs viewpoint - preoperational children fail to appreciate that there are points of view other than their own - a notable feature of egocentrism is animism - the belief that all things are living --> youngsters attribute lifelike, human qualities to inanimage objects Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span (3) Concrete Operational Period - Mental operations applied to concrete events mastery of conservation, hierarchical classification - developm
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