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January 27. 2013 Modules 32,33,34.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010

Psychology 1010 – Modules 32, 33, 34 -What is motivation: a process that influences the direction, persistence and vigour of goal- directed behaviour -Instinct theory: little support, simplistic explanations, circular reasoning problems, heredity partly accounts for motivational differences among people -Modern evolutionary psychology: adaptive significance – motivated to engage in behaviours that promote survival advantages -Drive theory: psychological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives to behave in a certain way (E.x Thirst influences drinking) -Incentives: stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a good -An instinct is a fixed (rigid and predictable) pattern of behaviour that is not acquired by learning and is likely to be rooted in genes and the body • Instincts  evolutionary perspective • Other species have genetically programmed instincts “motivating” their actions o We may have general patterns of behaviour which can be explained as emerging through natural selection -Drive reduction • Drive is an aroused/tense state related to a physical need such as hunger or thirst • Drive reduction theory: refers to the idea that humans are motivated to reduce these drives, such as eating to reduce the feeling of hunger. This restores homeostasis, a steady internal state • NEED  Drive  Drive Reducing Behaviours -Hierarchy of needs and motives: Abraham Maslow • Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self- actualization needs, self-transcendence needs -Physiology of hunger: experiments and other investigations show a complex relationship among the stomach hormones, ,and different parts of the brain • Signals that start a meal (stomach contractions correspond to feeling of hunger, hunger is experiences even if nerves from stomach to brain are severed) -Brain mechanisms • Lateral hypothalamus (LH): may be involved in stimulating eating • Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH): may influence stopping eating • Periventricular nucleus (PVN)” various neurotransmitters, appetite stimulant -Regulating weight • When a person’s weight drops or increases, the body responds by adjusting hunger and energy use to bring weight back to ints initial stable amount • Most mammals have a stable weight to which they keep returning. This is also known as their set point • A persons set point might rise with age, or change with economic cultural conditions -taste preferences: some taste preferences are universal. Carbohydrates temporarily raise levels of serotonin, reducing stress and depression -how much we eat • Social facilitation: the presence of others accentuates our typical eating habits • Unit bias: we may eat only one serving of food, but will eat more if the serving size is larger • Buffet effect: we eat more if more options are available -Influences on eating behaviours: biological, psychological and socio-cultural -variations from the norm of body weight: • In some cases, the set point of a person’s body weight drifts from a healthy weight • Can override this set point, can lead to extreme weight loss • Or the set point seems to drift upward, can lead to increase weight that is hard to lose, leading to obesity -Obesity and weight control: was adapted for our ancestors to crave energy rich food when available (problem: energy rich food us now easily available and cheaper than healthy food -it is adaptive to slow down our burning of fat when food is scarce (problem: in poverty or in crash diets, out body can slow down weight loss) -Social psychology of obesity: discrimination based on weight has been found to be stronger than race and gender discrimination. Perhaps as a result, people who are obese are more likely yo be depressed or isolated -Another human motivation: SEX • Four phases to orgasm and back • Problems with desire and response • Effect and role of testosterone and estrogen • Some people have variation or impairment in some phase of the sexual response cycle • These variations are sometimes distressful or problematic enough to be seen as disorders -adolescent sexual activity: adolescents often begin to engage in sexual activity
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