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September 30, 2013 Modules 17,18,19.docx

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PSYC 1010
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Sensation And Perception Modules 17,18,19 Monday September 30, 2013 Module 17 -Sensation: the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive -Perception: Organizing and giving meaning to input -Bottom up processing: taking information and then assembling and integrating it -Top down processing: using models, ideas, -3 Steps 1. Reception: stimulation of sensory receptor cells by energy 2. Transduction: transforming this cell stimulation into neural stimulation 3. Transmission: delivering the information to the brain • The absolute threshold refers to the minimum level of stimulus intensity needed to detect a stimulus half the time. -Signal detection theory: predicts when we will detect weak signals -How certain are we that stimulus is present? (You are walking alone, did u hear something?) -what criteria do we use to determine if stimulus is present? • Criteria fluctuate • Apparent sensitivity fluctuates • Other factors such as fatigue -when absolute threshold are not absolute! • Signal detection theory: whether or not we detect a stimulus, especially amidst background noise o Mother can tell their babies cries over background noise or other cries Present Absent “YES” Hit False alarm “NO” Miss Correct rejection Difference Threshold: smallest diff between 2 stimulus • For weight is about 1/50 breaks down at very high Sensory Adaptation: to detect novelty in our surroundings, our senses tune out a constant stimulus • The rock in your shoe or ticking of the clock are more diff to sense after a while • Our eyes are usually constantly moving • (Habituation) Perceptual set is what we expect to see, which influences what we do see. Perceptual set is an example of top down processing (if you are monster hunting you are going to see the lockness monster not a branch) Experiments show that: • Destinations seem farther when you’re tired • A targets look farther away when your crossbow is heavier • Hill looks steeper when you have a heavy backpack, after sad music, or when walking alone Module 18 Vision: electromagnetic wave recognition, visible spectrum Short wave length =high frequency (blue) Long wave length=low frequency (red) Great amplitude means bright colours Light goes through the cornea and the pupil and then the lens focuses and inverts onto the retina • Changes shape to focus on near or far images • Thinner to focus on distant objects • Thicker to focus on nearby objects Myopia: Nearsightedness (Can’t see far away objects) focuses light in front of retina (eyeball is longer front to back) Hyperopia: farsightedness (Can’t see close up objects) lens focuses light behind retina (eyeball is to short) Photoreceptors: • Cones: o For colour and detail, function best in the day time concentrated in centre of retina o Fovea (in centre of retina) contains only cones o Cones adapt after 10 minutes • Rods: o Function best in low light o 500 times more sensitive to light than cones o Found mostly periphery of retina-though everywhere in retina except fovea o Rods adapt after 30 minutes o Rods remain dark adapted and therefore can go from red light to dim /dark light • Rods and cones have synaptic connections with bipolar cells -Bipolar cells synapse with ganglion cells -attaching meaning to what we see • Information goes to visual association cortex • Interpreted in terms of our memories and knowledge Colour Vision: • Trichromatic theory: o 3 types of colour receptors o Cones are most sensitive to blue, red, green o Colours are perceived by additive mixtures of impulses o If all are equa
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