Class Notes (806,448)
Canada (492,252)
York University (33,488)
Psychology (4,069)
PSYC 1010 (1,329)
all (47)

December Modules 20,21,22.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 1010

ePsyc 1010 – Learning Module 20,21 Module 20 -Learning: as the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviours -Basic concept and classical conditioning • We learn from experience: 1. When we learn to predict events we already like or don’t like by noticing other events or sensations that happen first 2. When our actions have consequences 3. When we watch what other people do • We learn by association: 1. When two stimuli (events or sensations) tend to occur together or in sequence 2. When actions become associated with pleasant or aversive results 3. When two or places of information are linked -Associative learning • Classical conditioning: learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction o After repeated exposure to two stimuli occurring in sequence, we associate those stimuli with each other  Stimulus 1: see lightning  Stimulus 2: hear thunder  Stimulus: see lighting response would be to cover ears to avoid sound • Operant conditioning: changing behaviour choices in response to consequences o Child associates his “response” (behaviour) with consequences o Child learns to repeat behaviours (saying please) which were followed by desirable results (cookies) • Cognitive Learning: refers to acquiring new behaviours and information mentally, rather than by direct experience o It occurs by observing events and the behavior of others, by using language to acquire information about events experienced by others -Behaviourism: Pavlov • The term behaviourism was used by John B. Watson, a proponent of classical conditioning, as well as by B.F skinner, a leader in research about operant conditioning • Both scientists believed the mental life was much less important than behavioural as a foundation for psychological science • Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning: while studying salivation in dogs, Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been neutral stimuli such as o Just hearing that persons footsteps • Before Conditioning: o Neutral stimulus: stimulus that does not trigger a response o Unconditional stimulus and response: a stimulus which triggers a response naturally, before/without any conditioning • During Conditioning: The bell/tone (N.S.) is repeatedly presented with the food (U.S.) • After conditioning: the dog begins to salivate upon hearing the tone -Higher order conditioning: if the dog becomes conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell, can the dog be conditioned to salivate when a light flashes… association it with the BELL instead of with food? • YES! The conditioned response can be transferred from the US to CS then from there to another CS • This is Higher order conditioning: turning a NS into a CS by associating it with another CS -Acquisition: period during which association is being learned • The association between a neutral stimulus (NS) and an unconditional stimulus (US) is acquired • How can we tell that acquisition occurred? The UR now gets triggered by a CS • Timing: for the association to be acquired, the neutral stimulus needs to repeatedly appear before the unconditioned stimulus (half a second before) • Extinction: refers to the diminishing of conditioned response. If the US stops appearing with the CS, the CR decreases • Spontaneously recovery: after a rest period, and without any new learning trials, the reappearance of a previously extinguished CR -Generalization: Stimuli similar to initial CS elicit a CR -Discrimination: CR occurs to one stimulus but not to another -John B. Watson and classical conditioning: with fear • Acquiring and overcoming fear classical conditioning involved in: Little albert experiment • Conditioned fear responses: therapies for fear, anxiety Module 21 -Operant conditioning involves adjusting to the consequences of our behaviours, so we can easily learn to do more of what works and less of what doesn’t work -Edward Thorndike’s law of effect: states that behaviours followed by favourable consequences become more likely, and behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likely -B. F. Skinner: Behavioural control • Saw potential for exploring and using Thorndike’s principles much more broadly • Reinforcement: refers to any feedback from the environment that makes a behavioural more likely to recur o Positive (adding) reinforcement: adding something desirable o Negative (taking away): ending something unpleasant -Shaping behaviour: • When a creature is not likely you randomly perform exactly the behaviour you are trying to teach, you can reward any behaviour that comes close to the desired behaviour • A cycle of mutual reinforcement: o Children who have temper tantrum when they are frustrated may get positively reinforced for this behaviour when parents occasionally respond giving in to the desired behaviour o Discrimination: refers to the ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a response o Shaping can increase discrimination, if reinforcement only comes or a certain discriminative stimuli -Primary Reinforce: is a stimulus that meets a basic need or otherwise is intrinsically desirable, such as food, sex, fun, attention, or power -Secondary/conditional reinforce: is a stimulus, such as a rectangle of paper with numbers in it (money) which has become associated with a primary reinforce (money buys food, builds power) -A human talent: responding to delayed reinforces • Humans have the ability to link a consequence to a behaviour even if they aren’t linked sequentially in time. The piece of paper (money) can be delayed reinforce, paid by the month later, yet still reinforcing if we link it to our performance • Delaying gratification, a skill related to impulse control, enables longer term goal setting -Continuous reinforcement: giving a reward after the target every single time, the subject acquires the desired behaviour quickly -Partial/intermittent reinforcement: giving rewards part of the time, the target behaviour takes longer to be acquired/ established but persists longer without reward Schedules: • Fixed interval schedule: reward every hour • Variable interval Schedule: reward after c
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.