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January 20, 2014 Modules 29,30,31.docx

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PSYC 1010
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Psychology 1010- Modules 29, 30, 31 Module 29 -intelligence: ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and deal with environment -Sir Francis Galton: mental ability is inherited (genetic) -Alfred Binet: developed the first intelligence test to assess the mental skills of French school children • Binet assumptions: mental abilities develop with age • Rate at which people gain mental competence is characteristic of the person and is constant over time -Sterns Intelligent Quotient: IQ= MA/CA x 100 (mental age/chronological age) -Intelligence tests: are a series of questions and other exercises which attempt to assess peoples mental abilities in a way that generates a numerical score, so that one person can be compared to another -Intelligence: can be defined as “whatever intelligence tests measure” -Standford Binet and Weshchsler scales: • Mostly verbal items • Single IQ score • Terman revised binet test • Chart to label what people should be able to do at their specific age -Weschsler: thought that intelligence should be measured as a group of distinct but related verbal and visual test • 3 summary scores: verbal, performance, -Is intelligence one general ability or several specific abilities? • Ex. Charles spearman: general intelligence, Howard Gardner: 8 intelligences -Psychometric approach: statistical study of psychological tests (Factor analysis: technique used to find cluster “common elements” in a set of tests) • Charles spearman performs a factor analysis • Thurstones seven clusters of abilities o 7: verbal comprehension, inductive reasoning, word fluency, spatial ability, memory, perceptual speed, numerical (if someone was good in one category, they traditionaly were good in another, etc) • Howard Gardner Multiple intelligences: o Linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, visuospatial intelligence, music intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence (ability to understand and relate well to others), intrapersonal intelligence, naturalistic intelligence  Possible ninth: existential intelligence -Crystallized intelligence: ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems -Fluid Intelligence: ability to deal with novel problem solving situations without any previous knowledge -Intelligence and success: success in life is impossible to define. However, wealth tends to be related to intelligence test scored. Focused daily effort and practice, taking 10 years to achieve success level -Cognitive process approach: explore information processing and cognitive processes involved in intelligence -Triarchic Theory • Meta components: used to plan and regulate task performance, include problem solving task • Performance components: actual mental processes used to perform task, include processing, recall, motor behaviour • Knowledge-acquisition components: allow us to learn, store information, combine new insights with previous information o Analyctic intelligence: involves academically priented problem solving skilla measured by traditional intelligence tests o Practical intelligence: the kills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage oneself and other people effectively o Creative Intelligence: comprises the mental skills -Robert Sternberg proposed that success in life is related to 3 types of ability: practical intelligence, analytical intelligence (solving a well-defined problem with one answer), creative intelligence -Emotional intelligence: ability to read others emotions accurately, respond to others appropriately, motivate oneself, regulate and control one’s own emotional responses, be aware of one’s own emotions • Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence tests (MSCEIT) • 4 components of emotional detection o Perceiving emotions: peoples accuracy in judging emotions o Using emotions to facilitate thought: asking people to identify the emotions that would best enhance a particular type of thinking o Understand the emotions: what conditions change their emotions o Managing emotions: how they can change their emotions or others emotions • Adaptive advantage in managing emotions: stronger emotional bonds, greater success, less depression -Achievement tests: designed to discover how much someone knows -Aptitude tests: measure the potential for future learning and performance -test retest reliability: administer measure to same group of participations twice azrnd correlate scores -Internal cons
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