Motivation has 2 components: drive (arousal, goal-directed behaviour. We are motivated to maintain a zero drive level. E= dxh e represents the probability of a response. Flaw that was overlooked is that this only applies to biological needs, which is mainly aiming homeostasis. Incentives (the anticipation of a reward)- they are learned. Incentive theories= how external stimuli pull : hebb s optimal level of arousal theory y when arousal or drive is too low or too high we try to attain an optimal level of arousal. y. Why are we motivated to engage in risky or dangerous behaviour: zuckerman s sensation-seeking theory y high sensation-seekers have low resting level of arousal. Characteristics of high sensation-seekers: thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition (more prone to gambling, drugs, alcohol, multiple sex partners, susceptibility to boredom, solomon s opponent process theory (different from opponent process. Theory in ch 4) y the nervous system has a tendency to counteract deviation from normalcy.