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Human Memory

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Human Memory Chapter 7Cognitive approachy They know there is a stimulus in a response relationship And something is going on between stimulus and a response which is known as cognitive responsey Cognitive process make prediction evaluate expectations interprety From cognitive perspective of behaviourThey emphasise the importance of external factors y External factors are equally important as the internal factorsy Memory can be seen as cognitive kind of processBehavioural Approachy This approach emphasizes an overt behavioury It stresses SR relationships and argues that their relationships arestamped iny When we encounter a particular stimulus in environment it activates the brain centeryKholer y looking at problem solving in chimpanzees y he put the chimp in a cage and then he noticed that one chimp actually took the card boxes and put it on the bananasy He argued that chimpanzees demonstrates the insight the sudden understanding of how to solve a problem he said that all along things going in chimps head they re organized the problem and said ahha got itThere is no way to know what is in a persons memorythe researcher have to rely on the memory kind of games or modelInformation processing approach to memory y It got its name when this approach developed around the same time when the computer came around Same process like the inputs processingoutput the information y With memory systemthe input is the particular stimulus that pertains to any of the five sensesy The term retrieval where you go into the memory system and pull out the information you are trying to get This approach sees the memory made up of diff boxes and certain processes have to be conducted to go to the other boxesy The first component of the storage house is called thesensory storewhen it goes its called the decay when the information is being decay passingthe next stage isSTMshort term memory then the final more permanent is the LTM Long term memoryy Some researcher likes to divide the sensory store For example you have iconic store which is for visualthe images store Then you have the echoic storewhich is for the auditory storeSensory memory decay y Preserves information in its original sensory form for a short period The sensation ligers after the stimulus have enteredy Two things are related for information to go from the sensory store to short term memory a attention b pattern recognition have to be able to recognize what you are processing If information does go from sensory store to short term memory it is called theSTMif it is forced to hold too much informationsome of the information will be kicked out which means it will be displaceddecayy Working memoryy For examplewhat you had for dinner last night y Short term memory can hold information for about 15 to 20 secondsy The information in the short term memory will be the new informationy STM has a limited capacity can hold 7or 2 items of informationy Short term memory works on buffer systemthis meansy Saying words over and over you are maintain that information for some time Baddleyhad 2 simplicity view he thinks he developed a better model for memory when you are talking to someone on the phone and they say a Phonological rehearsalrehearsal laspphone number but you dont have a pen and a paper readyso what you do is you keep repeating that number Manipulating things in your mind Vissospatial sketch padExecutive pad makes a decision where the attention will be directed at a given time Episodic bufferit allows all the memory to integrate and work together Chunking information is when a unit of meaningful information If you chunk information you make a connection to form meaningful information
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