PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Sat, Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales, Intellectual Disability

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4 Mar 2015
Department
Course
PSYCH 1010: Chapter 9 By: Shayan
INTELLIGENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING
KEY CONCEPTS IN PSYCHOLGICAL TESTING
Psychological test- standardize measure of samples of a person’s behaviour- abilities,
attitudes and behaviour
PRINCIPLES TYPES OF TEST
Mental ability tests:
Intelligence test- measures general mental ability
Aptitude test- assesses specific types of mental abilities- verbal reasoning. Numerical ability
achievement test- gauge a person mastery and knowledge of various subjects
Personality tests
Personality tests- measure various aspects of personality including motives, interests, values
and attitudes
STANDARDIZATION AND NORMS
Both tests mentioned above are measures of behaviour.
Standardization- refers to uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test.
Test norms- provide information about were a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to
others scores on that test (everything is relative)
-most appropriate comparison would be age and status
RELIABLITY
Reliability- measurement consistency of a test- PT not perfectly reliable
To confirm reliability
test re-test reliability- comparing subjects score based on two tests
Reliability estimates need correlation coefficient- numerical index of the degree of relationship
between two variables . Test-retest must be correlated.
Reliability estimates usually above .70.
VALIDITY
Validity- ability of the test to measure what it was designed to measure
Content Validity
content validity- degree to which the content of a test id representative of the domain it’s
supposed to cover
Criterion-related Validity-
criterion-related validity- Estimated by correlating subject scores on a test with their scores on
an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test- performance in
university, suitability for training programs
Construct Validity
construct validity- extent to which there is evidence a test measures a particular hypothetical
construct
Requires looking at the relationship between a test and many other measures. FIG 9.4 PG 399
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THE EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING
Galton’s studies of Hereditary Genius
-studied family trees-success running family through hereditary inheritance
-measured simple sensory process- sensitivity to high pitches sounds, color, perception,
reaction
-introduced correlation and percentile test scores
Biner’s Breakthrough
-focused on abstract reasoning skill- developed of Binet-Simon scale- expressed child’s mental
age
-mental age- indicated that she displayed the mental ability typical of a child of that age
Terman and the Stanford- Binet
-Stanford-Binet Intelligence- scored bead on intelligent quotient- child’s mental age divided by
real age x 100= IQ
Wechsler’s innovation
Wechsler’s intelligence test- high quality intelligence test designed specifically for adults
2 dimensions- less dependent on verbal ability than the Stanford-Binet
-separate scales for verbal is performance and full skill
-second scoring scheme based upon normal distribution
THE DEBATE ABOUT THE STRUCTURE OF INTELLIGENCE
Factor analysis- correlations among many variables to identify closely related clusters of
variables
general mental ability- cognitive abilities reasoning, numerical and spatial
EXPLORING BIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF INTELLIGENCE
Scholastic Aptitude test
Thurstone concluded that intelligence involves multiple abilities
intelligence seven independent factors- Primary mental abilities
word, verbal, spatial, perceptual, numerical, inductive and memory
general mental ability (g.) should be divided into:
fluid intelligence- reasoning ability, memory capacity and sped of information processing
crystallized intelligence-ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills into problem-solving
BASIC QUESTIONS ABOUT INTELIIGENCE
What do modern IQ scores mean?
Normal distribution-bell shaped curve that represents pattern in which many characteristics are
dispersed along the population
raw scores transformed into deviation IQ scores that locate subjects precisely within the normal
distribution, using standard deviation as the unit of measurement
-100 ND 15 SD
-modern IQ scores show where you fall in the normal distribution of intelligence
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