PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Connectionism, Fergus I. M. Craik, Semantic Memory

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Published on 4 Mar 2015
PSYCH 1010: Chapter 7 By: Shayan
-Two kinds of memory: labelled semantic and episodic memory (general memory
and memory for personal events)
-Patient K.C needed PDA to remember everything, his memory wouldn’t wore the
same a everyone else’s
-We are able to look to the past, present, and anticipate the future through our
cognitive systems
-Animals are “stuck in time” because they have no episodic memory
-Memory problems increase with age
Three key processes involved in memory:
1. Encoding: involves forming a memory code
Emphasising how a word looks, sounds, means
Analogous to entering data using computer keyboard
2. Storage: involved maintaining encoded information in memory over time
Analogous to saving data in a while on your computer
3. Retrieval storage: involves recovering information from memory stores
Analogous to calling up file and then displaying it on your computer
-Need to pay attention if you intend on remembering information you are
-Attention: involved focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.
Selective attention is critical to everyday functioning.
-Attention often linked to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli, allowing a
select few to pass through into conscious awareness
-Debate is going on as to where filter is located
-Key issue is whether stimuli are screened out early, during sensory input, or late,
after brain has processed meaning or significance of the input
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-Evidence suggest “later”
Ex. People overhear conversations they have blocked out then realize they
overheard their name.
-SCIENCE shown evidence for both
-Location of filter may be flexible, not fixed
LOOK AT FIG 7.1 PG. 303
-When filtering occurs, people have difficulty attempting to focus attention on 2+
-When people are forced to divide attention, performance and memory decreases
-Fergus Craik did these studies
-Human brain can handle only ONE attention consuming task at a time
-Lynn Hasher suggests much of our information we want to remember is
processed by effortful processing, but some types may be acquired more
-Not all attention is created equal
-Difference in how people attend to information are main factors influencing how
much they remember
-Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart proposed important model arguing that
different rates of forgetting occur because some method of encoding create more
durable memory codes
-Incoming information can be processed at different levels
-Dealing with verbal information – people engage in three progressively deeper
levels of processing: structural, phonemic, semantic encoding
-Structural encoding: relatively shallow processing that emphasizes physical
structure of stimulus
Ex. If words are flashed on a screen, structure encoding registers such matters
as how they are printed – lowercase, capital, font, etc.
-Further analysis can result in phonemic encoding: emphasizes what a word
sounds like; involves name calling or saying the words
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-Semantic encoding: emphasizes meaning of verbal input; involved thinking about
the objects and actions the words represent
-Levels-of-processing theory: proposes that deeper levels of processing result in
longer-lasting memory codes
-Other dimensions to encoding to improve memory: elaboration, visual, imagery,
self-referent coding
LOOK AT FIG 7.2 PG. 305
-Semantic encoding can be enhanced through process called elaboration: linking
a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
-Can also be used to enrich encoding
-Allan Paivio (1969) points out it’s easier to form images of concrete objects (ex.
Juggler) than abstract concepts (ex. Truth)
-High-imagery, concrete objects easier to remember than abstract concepts
-Imagery facilitates memory because it provides second kind of memory code
-Dual-coding theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and
visual codes, since either can lead to recall
-Making material personally meaningful enriches encoding
-Memory seems to be slanted towards personally attached memories
-Self-referent encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is
personally relevant
-Depressed people have more negative prototype in life
-Aristotle and Plato compared a memory to a block of wax
-Memory is like pressing stamps into the wax
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