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Chapter 14 Notes.docx

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Chapter 14Psychological DisordersAbnormal Behaviour Myths Realities and Controversies The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal BehaviourThe medical model it is useful to think of abnormal behaviour as a disease o Brought improvements in the treatment of those who exhibited abnormal behaviourThe end of chanting imprisoning etc o Has been suggested that this model has outlived its usefulnessSzasz says this model converts moral and social questions about what is acceptable behaviour into medical questionsText says disease analogy is still useful mental illness is not a disease in a strict senseThe following have proven very useful in the treatment and study of abnormality o Diagnosis distinguishing one illness from another o Etiology the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness o Prognosis a forecast about the probable course of an illnessCriteria of Abnormal BehaviourDeviance o Each culture has certain norms when people violate these norms they may be labelled mentally illEx transvestic fetishismwhen a man achieves sexual arousal by dressing in womens clothingMaladaptive behaviour o When a persons everyday adaptive behaviour is impairedEx used in the diagnosis of substance abuselike when a cocaine addicts functioning is affected by his drug usePersonal distress o Diagnosis of a psychological disorder is based on an individuals report of great personal distressPeople are often viewed as disordered when just one of the above criterion is met o Diagnosis involves value judgements about what abnormal behaviour iscan reflect prevailing cultural values social trends political forces and scientific knowledge o Normality and abnormality exist on a continuumIt is only when the above criteria are manifested in extremes that a person can be considered mentally illStereotypes of Psychological DisordersPsychological disorders are incurable o While some do not respond to treatment many people do recover from their mental illnesseseither spontaneously or as a result of treatmentPeople with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous o Contrary to media coverage there is only a modest association between mental illness and violent tendencies especially if people have had violent historiesPeople with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people o This is only true in a minority of very severe caseso Often people with disorders are indistinguishable from those withoutRosenhans experimentspseudopatients were admitted into a mental hospital after acting completely normal other than complaints about hearing voicesProves that we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in hospitals which impose a certain environment where behaviour can be misunderstood by expectation and the situationPsychodiagnosis The Classification of DisordersSystem of classifying psychological disordersmatching symptoms are current functioning to preestablished categories of psychological disorders in the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMo DSM has been republished 4 times maybe 1 additional time since this textbook was publishedeach time including more disorders with more explicit diagnostic guidelines o There is a multiaxial system of classification 5 axesAxis 1Clinical Syndromes Axis 2Personality Disorders or Mental RetardationAxis 3General Medical Conditions Axis 4estimates the severity of stressful life eventsAxis 5Global Assessment of Functioning GAF Scaleindividuals current level of adaptive functioning social and occupational behaviourProblems with diagnosis o Selffulfilling prophecy o Social stigma o The label colours ones perceptionThe Prevalence of Psychological DisordersEpidemiology the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a populationPrevalence the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time o Lifetime prevalencethe percentage of people who endure a specific disorder at any time of their lives80s90sStudies have found psychological disorders in one third of the populationMore recent studies44 of the adult population will struggle with some sort of psychological disorder at some point in their livesMost recent studiesestimated lifetime risk of psychiatric disorder51Overall rates for males and females with psychological disorders are about the same o But there is gender variation across categories of disorders o 68 of people who reported symptoms of disorders did not seek assistanceHaving a psychological disorder is costly to patients and the health system There are 3 types of neurotic disorders anxiety somatoform dissociative
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