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Lecture 1

PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Autonomic Nervous System, Orgasm, Vaginal Lubrication

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Doug Mc Cann

of 24
Chapter 10 (motivation and emotion)
Motivation relates to the study of the processes involved in goal-directed behavior which
are often associated with specific emotions.
Sport psychologists r specialized in facilitating motivation
Chantal Petitclerc is one of Canada’s finest athletes. Since losing the use of her legs in an
accident at age 13, she has gone on to dominate women’s wheelchair racing events. She
holds many world, Commonwealth, and Paralympic records
Motives are the needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people in certain
directions, propel us to achieve important goals. In short, motivation involves goal-
directed behaviour.
Clark hull explored the drive concept to investigating motivation
A drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities
that should reduce this tension.
According to drive theories, when individuals experience a drive, they’re motivated to
pursue actions that will lead to drive reduction.
Problem: motivation may exist without drive arousal. i.e: get ice-cream when u see it in
the ad. Incentive theories are better at explaining this
Incentive theories propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states.
An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour.
Some incentives may reduce drive and some may not. i.e: Ice cream, a juicy steak, a
monetary prize, approval from friends, an A on an exam, and a promotion at work
Push vs. pull theories: Drive theories emphasize how internal states of
tension push people in certain directions. Incentive theories emphasize
how external stimuli pull people in certain directions.
in comparison to drive theories, incentive theories emphasize environmental factors and
downplay the biological bases of human motivation.
Expectancy-value models of motivation are incentive theories that take reality into
According to expectancy-value models, one’s motivation to pursue a particular course of
action will depend on two factors:
(1)expectancy about one’s chances of attaining the incentive and
(2)the value of the desired incentive
Evolutionary analyses of motivation are based on the premise that motives can best be
understood in terms of the adaptive problems they solved for our hunter–gatherer
People all share the same biological motives, but have different social motives according
to their experiences
Cannon theorized that stomach contractions cause hunger. However reality is that
Stomach contractions often accompany hunger, but they don’t cause it
Hypothalamus controls hunger
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They used to believe that the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the ventromedial nucleus of
the hypothalamus (VMH), were the brain’s on–off switches for the control of hunger but
now the acurate nucleus and theparaventricular nucleusplay a larger role in the
modulation of hunger
glucostatic theory proposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the
brain where they influence the experience of hunger since an increase in blood sugar
leads to satiety and vice versa
Ghrelin is released from stomach when u r hungry to make some contractions
Leptin is produced by fat cells throughout the body and released into the bloodstream to
tell u, u r full
CCK is produced by upper intestine to reduce hunger
social and environmental factors govern eating to a considerable extent.
Three key environmental factors are
(1)the availability of food,
(2) learned preferences and habits, and
(3) stress
the following variables exert significant influence over food consumption:
1)Palatability. The better food tastes, the more of it people consume
2)the bin model or bin heuristic: u eat wts served to u
one study found that people consumed 45 percent more popcorn when it
was served in larger containers
3)Variety. Humans and animals increase their consumption when a greater
variety of foods is available
sensory-specific satiety: As you eat a specific food, its incentive value
4) Presence of others. On average, individuals eat 44 percent more when
they eat with other people as opposed to eating alone
exposure to soda and food advertisements incite hunger and lead to
increased food intake
food preferences are acquired through learning; some stuff r preferred
somewhere and not in other places.
A BMI over 30 is considered obese, while BMIs between 25 and 29.9 are
considered overweight.
about one in four Canadian adults are obese, and almost 9 percent of Canadian youth are
obesity costs the Canadian economy $5–$7 billion per year
As expected by Logel and Cohen, the results showed that those who engaged in value-
affirmation had smaller waists and lower BMIs as compared to the control group.
The logic of the self- affirmation or value-affirmation task is that having people think and
write about personally important values tends to affirm their self-worth and increase their
self-control by making salient to them higher values rather than dysfunctional impulses
such as reaching for yet another cookie.
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Changes in weight depend on one’s caloric intake in relation to one’s energy expenditure
from physical activities and metabolic processes. When you consume your calories is
irrelevant. It is the overall amount of caloric intake that is crucial
genetic factors account for 61 percent of the variation in weight among men, and 73
percent among women.
Mounir and Halawa’s genes contribute to their body types (y7eff w slim vs. yakol w
the adoptees resembled their biological parents much more than their adoptive parents in
identical twins reared apart were far more similar in BMI than fraternal twins reared
Kelly Brownell (2002) argues that modern societies have created a “toxic environment”
for eating
Normalization of fast food and fats and ads and sizes over grocery stores is a main cause
of obesity
Life style and the new conveniences in our lives reduced our physical activity
over half of Canadian children and youth between the ages of 5 and 17 are considered not
active enough for “optimal growth and development”
low income families are most likely inactive
Stanley Schachter (1968) advanced the externality hypothesis” that obese people are
extrasensitive to external cues that affect hunger and are relatively insensitive to internal
physiological signals, whereas normal weights are the opposite
Judith Rodin blurred Schachter’s key distinction between the internal and external
determinants of hunger when she noted that external cues could affect internal cues
causing people to get hungry and eat (smellinsulinhungry)
She also highlighted findings showing that not all overweight people are hypersensitive
to external cues, and that normal weight people are not necessarily insensitive to external
food cues
the externality hypothesis was widely viewed as discredited. (Rodin was hating and
screwed Stanley :P )
obesity is a function of many factors and that obese people are not oblivious to
physiological signals of hunger
To better understand how external cues relate to obesity, Herman and Polivy (2008) have
introduced a distinction between normative as opposed to sensoryexternal cues.
Normative cues are indicators of socially appropriate food intake; Sensory cues are
characteristics of the food itself.
Richard Keesay: Set-point theory proposes that the body monitors fat-cell levels to
keep them (and weight) fairly stable. This compensation increases hunger and decrease
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