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Lecture 5

PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Lucid Dream, Sleep Deprivation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Agnieszka Kopinska
Lecture
5

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5 | HH/PSYCH 1010 Consciousness
CONSCIOUSNESS
Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness
Consciousness
Consciousness is our subjective experience of the world, our bodies, and our mental perspectives, the
awareness of our internal and external stimuli.
oWilliam James described consciousness as a continually changing stream or river of
mental activity.
oRené Descartes saw the mind as being dissociated from but connected to the body.
oSigmund Freud saw consciousness as the interests that were below the surface of the
stream.
Patterns Associated with States of Consciousness
EEG Pattern Frequency (cps) Typical States of Consciousness
Beta 13-24 Normal waking thought, alert problem solving.
Alpha 8-12 Deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation.
Theta 4-7 Light sleep.
Delta Less than 4 Deep sleep.
The Electroencephalo-Graph (EEG) is a device that monitors electrical activity of the brain over
time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp.
The Electromyograph (EMG) records muscular activity and tension.
The Electrooculograph (EOG) records eye movement.
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Biological Rhythms are periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning.
Biological Rhythm Types
Rhythm Type Environmental Cycle Period Length
Entrained Free-Running
Circadian Revolution of earth 24 Hours 22-26 Hours
Circatidal Tides 12.4 Hours 11-14 Hours
Circalunar Phases of the moon 29.5 Hours 26-32 Days
Circannual Seasons of the year 265.25 Days 330–400 Days
Circadian Rhythms are the 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.
oBiological Clock is a term for Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus that’s
responsible for controlling our levels of alertness – Includes hormone release, brain waves,
drowsiness, and body temperature.
Cycles of Sleep
1. Stage One
Light sleep (5-10 minutes)
Theta Waves (3.50 - 7.5 CPS)
Hypnagogic Imagery, scrambled, bizarre, and dreamlike images that flit in and out of
consciousness, as well as sudden body jerks.
Hypnic Jerks, brief muscular contractions that occur as people fall asleep.
2. Stage Two
Sleep deepens (10-30 minutes)
Sleep Spindles and mixed EEG activity (1-2 second bursts of rapid brain activity)
Brain activity decreases, heart rate slows, body temperature decreases, and our muscles are
more relaxed.
Stage throughout the night that you tend to always go back to – Approx. 65% of your night
you will be in stage 2 of sleep.
3. Stage Three & Four
Sleep deepens (15–30 minutes)
Regular appearance of Delta Waves (0.5 – 2 CPS)
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5 | HH/PSYCH 1010 Consciousness
Slow-Wave Sleep (SWS) consists of sleep stages 3 and 4, during which high-amplitude, low
frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings (It is required in order to feel
rested).
oStage 5: REM SLEEP
REM Sleep (Rapid Eye Movement) is a relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye
movements; frequency, low-amplitude brain waves; and vivid dreaming. A stage of sleep
during which the brain is most active and during which vivid dreaming most often occurs.
Non-REM Sleep (NREM) sleep consists of sleep stages 1 through 4, which are marked by an
absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity.
o1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM
oNeurogenesis refers to the formation of new neurons.
Sleep Deprivation
Types of Sleep Deprivation:
oShort-Term (Up to 45 hours without sleep)
oLong-Term (More than 45 hours)
oPartial (Chronic – No more than 5 hours/1 night or more consecutive nights)
Negative impact on functioning:
oMood suffered the most.
oFollowed by cognitive and physical performance.
oTakes several nights to recover.
oDo not make up all sleep time lost.
oWeight gain.
oDepression.
oIncreases the risk for cardiovascular disease.
oDecreases your immune system.
“Rebound Effect” – People who are sleep deprived spend extra time in REM periods for 1 to 3 nights to
make up for REM deprivation.
Sleep Disorders
Insomnia refers to chronic problems in getting adequate sleep
o(0%-15% of people)
oThree basic patterns:
1. Difficulty in falling asleep initially.
2. Difficulty in remaining asleep.
3. Persistent early-morning awakening.
oHigh rates with depression, pain and medical conditions.
Narcolepsy is the disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking
periods.
oA person will go from wakefulness into REM sleep (10-20 minutes)
Sleep Apnea involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep.
oMay wake briefly a hundred times per night, causes people to snore loudly, gasp, and
sometimes stop breathing for more than 20 seconds, causes fatigue and other health issues.
Nightmares are anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep.
Night Terrors (also called “sleep terrors” are abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep, accompanied by
intense autonomic arousal and feelings of pain.
oSudden waking episodes characterized by screaming, perspiring, and confusion followed by a
return to a deep sleep.
oMost common in children, harmless.
Somnambulism/Sleepwalking occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining sleep.
oTypically during the first 2 hours of sleep while in “slow-wave sleep, during stage 3 or stage 4
(15 seconds – 30 minutes)
oTreatment: Psychotherapy, hypnosis, drugs, behavioral (Waking before sleeping), wait to
outgrow it.
REM-Sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is marked by potentially troublesome dream enactments
during REM periods.
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