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Lecture 20

PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Stella Chess, Prenatal Development


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Agnieszka Kopinska
Lecture
20

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HH/PSYCH 1010 Human Development Across Life Span
Human Development across the Life Span
Chapter 11: Human Development across the Life Span
Human Development across the Life Span
Human Development is the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from
conception to death.
1. Prenatal Period (between conception and birth)
2. Childhood
3. Adolescence
4. Adulthood
Prenatal Development
Prenatal Period extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing the nine months of pregnancy.
Zygote is a one-celled organism formed by the union a sperm and an egg.
1. Germinal Stage
oGerminal Stage is the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first
two weeks after conception.
oPlacenta is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from
the mother’s bloodstream, and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother.
2. Embryonic Stage
oEmbryonic Stage is the second stage of prenatal development, lasting two weeks
until the end of the second month.
-During this stage, formation of the vital organs and bodily systems
begin to form in the developing organism, which is now called an
embryo.
3. Fetal Sage
oFetal Stage is the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months
through birth.
-Bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells
multiple.
oAge of Viability is the time period at which a baby can survive in the event of a
premature birth (22 weeks and 26 weeks).
Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development:
oMaternal Nutrition: Malnutrition is linked to increased risk of birth complications,
neurological problems, and psychopathology.
oMaternal Drug Use:
-Teratogens are any external agents, such as drugs or viruses, which can harm an
embryo or fetus.
-Example: Tobacco, alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs.
-Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated
with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy.
oMaternal Illness: The fetus is largely defenseless against infections because its immune
systems matures relatively late in the prenatal period.
-Example: Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza.
Childhood
Motor Development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities.
oCephalocaudal Trend is the head-to-foot direction of motor development.
-Children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the
lower part.
oProximodistal Trend is the centre-outward direction of motor development.
-Children gain control over their torso before their extremities.
Maturation is development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic unfolding.
Developmental Norms indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviours and
abilities.
Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament:
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HH/PSYCH 1010 Human Development Across Life Span
Temperament refers to characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity.
oAlexander Thomas, Stella Chess, and Birch (1970)
-Easy Children (Happy, regular in sleeping and eating, adaptable, and not readily
upset) – 40%
-Slow-to-Warm Up (Less cheery, less regular in their sleeping and eating, and
slower in adapting to change) – 15%
-Difficult Children (Glum, erratic in sleeping and eating, resistant to change, and
relatively irritable) – 10%
oJerome Kagen and Snideman (1991)
-Inhabitant Temperament is characterized by shyness, timidity, and wariness of
unfamiliar people, objects and events.
-Uninhibited Temperament is characterized by less restrained, approaching
unfamiliar people, objects, and events.
Longitudinal Design is where investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period
of time.
oExample: An investigator might assemble one group of 50 six-year-olds and measure their
vocabulary at age 6, again at age8, and once more at age 10.
Cross-Sectional Design is where investigators compared groups of participants of differing age at a
single point in time.
oExample: An investigator might assemble one group of 50 six-year-olds, 50 eight-year-olds,
50 ten-year-olds and trace the growth of their vocabulary.
Cohort Effects occurs when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in
different time periods.
Early Emotional Development: Attachment
Attachment refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their
caregivers.
Separation Anxiety is the emotional distresses seen in many infants when they are separated from
people with they have formed an attachment.
Strange Situation: Mary Salter Ainsworth (1979)
1. Parent and infant alone.
2. Stranger joins parents and infant.
3. Parent leaves infant and stranger alone.
4. Parent returns and stranger leaves.
5. Parent leaves; infant left completely alone.
6. Stranger returns.
7. Parent returns and stranger leaves.
Patterns of Attachment:
oSecure Attachment: Child tends to be playful, less inhibited, exploration-orientated, sociable.
oAnxious-Ambivalent Attachment: Child tends to engage in visual checking; signaling to re-
establish contact, calling, pleading; moving to re-establish contact, clinging.
oAvoidant Attachment: Child tends to maintain proximity while avoiding close contact.
oDisorganized/Disoriented: Children appear confused about whether or not they should
approach or avoid their mother are especially insecure.
Personality Development in Childhood
Stage is a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behaviour are exhibited and
certain capacities become established.
Erik Erikson’s Stage Theory (1963)
oPersonality is shaped by how individuals deal with eight psychosocial crises, each crises
involves a struggle between two opposing tendencies.
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (1st year of life)
oIs my world predictable and supportive?
oInfants must rely on others for care.
oConsistent and dependable caregiving and meeting of the infants
needs leads to a sense of trust.
oInfants who are not well cared for will develop mistrust.
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