PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Oedipus Complex, Sigmund Freud, Reality Principle
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HH/PSYCH 1010 Personality
Chapter 12: Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment
The Nature of Personality
Personality refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and
oAttempts to describe and explain how people are similar, how they are different, and why
every individual is unique.
Personality Trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations.
The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits
Worried versus Calm
Insecure versus Secure
Self-Pitying versus Self-Satisfied
Sociable versus Retiring
Fun-Loving versus Sober
Affectionate versus Reserved
Imaginative versus Down-To-Earth
Preference For Variety versus Preference For Routine
Independent versus Conforming
Agreeableness Softhearted versus Ruthless
Trusting versus Suspicious
Helpful versus Uncooperative
Well Organized versus Disorganized
Careful versus Careless
Self-Disciplined versus Weak Willed
Psychodynamic Personality Perspective
Psychodynamic Theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by
focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts, and on
the methods of people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges.
oIncludes all of the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus
on the unconscious mental forces.
Structure of Personality:
Id is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure
oThe Id houses the raw biological urges (to eat, sleep, defecate, copulate, and so on) that
energize human behaviour.
oPleasure Principle that demands immediate gratification of its urges.
oPrimary-process thinking, which is primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy-orientated.
Ego is the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle.
oThe ego considers social realities - society’s norms, etiquette, rules, and customs – in
deciding how to behave.
oReality Principle that seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets
and situations can be found.
oSecondary-process thinking, which is relatively rational, realistic, and orientated towards
Superego is the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what
represents right and wrong.
Levels of Awareness:
Conscious consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time.
Preconscious contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved.
Unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires, that are well below the surface of conscious
awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour.
Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms:
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