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Genes Evolutions and Behavior.docx

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PSYC 1010
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Twinkle Kavi Genes Evolutions and Behavior – Chapter 4 Genetic Influences Chromosomes and Genes  Genotype – specific genetic makeup of an individual o Are present from conception and can be never changed  Phenotype- observable characteristics produced by the genetic endowment o Can be affected by other genes and by the environment  Chromosome – a tightly coiled molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)that is partly covered by protein  The DNA portion of the chromosome carried heredity blueprint in units called genes  Every cell has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)  Exception is the sex cell (egg and sperm) - Contains 23 chromosomes - Come to form new call with 46 chromosomes  Alternative forms of a gene that produce different characteristics are called alleles Dominant, Recessive, and Polygenic Effects  Genotype and Phenotype are not identical because some genes are dominant and some are recessive  Dominant gene from either parent will display the particular characteristic it carries  If the gene is Recessive the characteristic will not show up unless partner gene inherited from other parent is also recessive  Polygenic transmission – multiple gene pairs influence phenotype Mapping Genome Project (1990)  More than 75 genes that contribute to hereditary diseases have been identified Genetic Engineering  Advances in molecular biology enable scientists not only to map human genome, but also to duplicate and modify the structures of genes themselves  Recombinant DNA procedures o Researchers use certain enzymes to cut the long threadlike molecules of genetic DNA into pieces, and combine them with DNA from another organism, and insert then into a host organism  Gene knockout – where particular function of gene is eliminated  Problem : very few behaviors are controlled by a single gene Twinkle Kavi Behavior Genetics  The study of genetic relatedness  Behavior geneticist are interested in studying how hereditary and environmental factors combine to influence psychological characteristics  Heritability coefficient – is the estimate of how much of characteristic is due to genetic factors  Heredity – the passage of characteristics from parents to offspring by way of genes  Heritability - means how much of the variation in a characteristic within a population can be attributed to genetic differences  Concordance rate – is the rate of co-occurrence of a characteristic among individuals o Higher rates among individuals who are more highly related to one another = possible genetic contribution Adoption & Twin studies • Adopted children - frequently more similar to biological parents • Identical twins more similar - even when reared apart Identical Fraternal • Monozygotic twins - Dizygotic Twins – Identical chromosomes - Different chromosomes Genetic Influences on Behavior  All our behaviors reflect the interaction between genes and the environment Heredity, Environment, and Intelligence  The more genes people have in common, the more similar they are in IQ  This strong evidence suggests that gene plays a significant role in intelligence Reaction Range  Range of possibilities – upper and lower limits – that the genetic code allows  Each of us has a range of intellectual potential that is jointly influenced by two factors o Our genetic inheritance o The opportunities our environment provides for acquiring intellectual skills  Environmental effects determine where person falls within these limits o Enriched environments allow intelligence to develop in the upper ranges o Deprived environments limit intelligence to the lower ranges Twinkle Kavi Behavior Genetics & Personality • Is there a genetic component to our personality? • Need to study: – Genetic contribution – Shared family environment – Unique individual experiences HOW CAN WE STUDY THAT? Evolution & Behaviour  Evolutionary Psychology – seeks to understand how behavioral abilities and tendencies have evolved over the course of millions of years in response to environ
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