Class Notes (838,398)
Canada (510,881)
York University (35,470)
Psychology (4,109)
PSYC 1010 (1,346)
all (47)
Lecture

psych chapter 12

5 Pages
54 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 12: PERSONALITY : THEORY, RESEARCH ,AND A SSESSMENT I. The Nature of Personality A. Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness 1. Concept of personality is used to explain: a. Stability in a person’s behavior over time (consistency) b. The behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness) 2. Personality – an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits. B. Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions 1. Personality Trait – durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations. i.e. honesty, dependable, moody, etc. 2. Factor Analysis – correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables. C. The Five Factor Model of Personality Traits (McCrae and Costa) 1. Extraversion – people who score high are characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive and gregarious. Positive Emotionality. 2. Neuroticism – people tend to be highly anxious, hostile, self conscious, insecure and vulnerable. Negative Emotionality 3. Openness to Experience – associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes. 4. Agreeableness – tend to be sympathetic trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward. 5. Conscientiousness – tend to be diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual, and dependable. Constraint. Higher productivity 6. Maintain that personality can be described adequately be measuring the basic traits that they’ve identified. II. Psychodynamic Perspectives A. Introduction 1. Psychodynamic theories incl. all the diverse theories descended from the work of Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces. B. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory 1. Psychoanalytic Theory – attempts to explain personality, motivation and psych disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, unconscious motives and conflicts, and methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges. a. Opponents – people control their own minds, people are masters of their destinies, conservative sex values of time. 2. Structure of Personality – divided personality structure into 4 components and saw person’s behavior as the outcome of interactions among those 3 components a. Id – primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle. i.e. eating. i. Operates according to the pleasure principle – demands immediate gratification of its urges. 1/5 Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 12: PERSONALITY : THEORY, RESEARCH ,AND A SSESSMENT b. Ego – decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality personality. Ego mediates between the id, with forceful desires for immediate satisfaction and the external social world. i. Reality Principle – seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found. ii. Secondary process thinking – involves rational, realistic, and oriented problem solving. c. Superego – the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong. 3. Levels of Awareness – a. Conscious – consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time. b. Preconscious – contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved. c. Unconscious – thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior. 4. Conflict and the Tyranny of Sex and Aggression a. Freud believed that people’s lives are dominated by conflict. Asserted that individuals careen from one conflict to another. b. Believed that conflicts centering on sexual and aggressive impulses are especially likely to have far reaching consequences. i. Sex and aggression are subject to more complex and ambiguous social controls than other basic motives. ii. Sexual and aggressive drives are thwarted more regularly that other basic bio urges. 5. Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms a. Anxiety can be attributed to your ego worrying about a) the id getting out of control and doing something terrible that leads to severe negative consequences. b) the superego getting out of control and making you fell guilty about a real or imagined transgression. b. Defense Mechanisms – largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt. c. Rationalization – creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior. d. Repression – keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious. e. Projection – attributing ones own thoughts, feelings, or motives to one another. f. Displacement – diverting emotional feelings (i.e. anger) from their original source to a substitute target. g. Reaction formation – behaving in a way that’s exactly the opposite of one’s true feelings. h. Regression – reversion to immature patterns of behavior. i. Identification – bolstering of self esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group. 2/5 Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS Notes From Reading C HAPTER 12: PERSONALITY: THEORY , RESEARCH ,AND A SSESSMENT 6. Development: Psychosexual Stages a. Psychosexual stages – developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality. b. Fixation – failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected. c. Oral Stage – 1st y ear of life, main source of erotic stimulation is the mouth. Attributed considerable importance to the manner in which the child is weaned from the breast or the bottle. Fixation at or
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1010

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit