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Lecture

PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Big Five Personality Traits, Personal Unconscious, Oral Stage


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
all

Page:
of 5
Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND ASSESSMENT
I. The Nature of Personality
A. Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness
1. Concept of personality is used to explain:
a. Stability in a person’s behavior over time (consistency)
b. The behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation
(distinctiveness)
2. Personality – an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral
traits.
B. Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions
1. Personality Trait – durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a
variety of situations. i.e. honesty, dependable, moody, etc.
2. Factor Analysis – correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify
closely related clusters of variables.
C. The Five Factor Model of Personality Traits (McCrae and Costa)
1. Extraversion – people who score high are characterized as outgoing, sociable,
upbeat, friendly, assertive and gregarious. Positive Emotionality.
2. Neuroticism – people tend to be highly anxious, hostile, self conscious,
insecure and vulnerable. Negative Emotionality
3. Openness to Experience – associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy,
imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes.
4. Agreeableness – tend to be sympathetic trusting, cooperative, modest, and
straightforward.
5. Conscientiousness – tend to be diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual,
and dependable. Constraint. Higher productivity
6. Maintain that personality can be described adequately be measuring the basic
traits that they’ve identified.
II. Psychodynamic Perspectives
A. Introduction
1. Psychodynamic theories incl. all the diverse theories descended from the work
of Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces.
B. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
1. Psychoanalytic Theory – attempts to explain personality, motivation and
psych disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences,
unconscious motives and conflicts, and methods people use to cope with their
sexual and aggressive urges.
a. Opponents – people control their own minds, people are masters of their
destinies, conservative sex values of time.
2. Structure of Personality – divided personality structure into 4 components and
saw person’s behavior as the outcome of interactions among those 3
components
a. Id – primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates
according to the pleasure principle. i.e. eating.
i. Operates according to the pleasure principle – demands immediate
gratification of its urges.
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Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND ASSESSMENT
b. Ego – decision making component of personality that operates according
to the reality personality. Ego mediates between the id, with forceful
desires for immediate satisfaction and the external social world.
i. Reality Principle – seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until
appropriate outlets and situations can be found.
ii. Secondary process thinking – involves rational, realistic, and
oriented problem solving.
c. Superego – the moral component of personality that incorporates social
standards about what represents right and wrong.
3. Levels of Awareness –
a. Conscious – consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in
time.
b. Preconscious – contains material just beneath the surface of awareness
that can easily be retrieved.
c. Unconscious – thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the
surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence
on behavior.
4. Conflict and the Tyranny of Sex and Aggression
a. Freud believed that people’s lives are dominated by conflict. Asserted
that individuals careen from one conflict to another.
b. Believed that conflicts centering on sexual and aggressive impulses are
especially likely to have far reaching consequences.
i. Sex and aggression are subject to more complex and ambiguous
social controls than other basic motives.
ii. Sexual and aggressive drives are thwarted more regularly that other
basic bio urges.
5. Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms
a. Anxiety can be attributed to your ego worrying about a) the id getting
out of control and doing something terrible that leads to severe negative
consequences. b) the superego getting out of control and making you fell
guilty about a real or imagined transgression.
b. Defense Mechanisms – largely unconscious reactions that protect a
person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.
c. Rationalization – creating false but plausible excuses to justify
unacceptable behavior.
d. Repression – keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the
unconscious.
e. Projection – attributing ones own thoughts, feelings, or motives to one
another.
f. Displacement – diverting emotional feelings (i.e. anger) from their
original source to a substitute target.
g. Reaction formation – behaving in a way that’s exactly the opposite of
one’s true feelings.
h. Regression – reversion to immature patterns of behavior.
i. Identification – bolstering of self esteem by forming an imaginary or real
alliance with some person or group.
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Jan/6/2004 CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND ASSESSMENT
6. Development: Psychosexual Stages
a. Psychosexual stages – developmental periods with a characteristic
sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality.
b. Fixation – failure to move forward from one stage to another as
expected.
c. Oral Stage – 1st y ear of life, main source of erotic stimulation is the
mouth. Attributed considerable importance to the manner in which the
child is weaned from the breast or the bottle. Fixation at oral stage could
form basis for obsessive eating or smoking.
d. Anal Stage – 2 yrs. Children get erotic pleasure from their bowel
movements. Toilet training – may lead to sexual anxiety, etc.
e. Phallic Stage – 4 yrs. Oedipal complex. Anatomical differences between
males and females.
i. Oedipal complex children – manifest erotically tinged desires for
their opposite sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility
toward their same sex parent.
f. Latency and Genital Stages – 6-puberty – child’s sexuality is largely
suppressed.
C. Jung’s Analytical Psychology
1. Jung – called new approach Analytic Psychology.
2. Emphasized the unconscious determinants of personality, but he proposed that
the unconscious only consisted of 2 layers.
3. Personal Unconscious – houses material that is not within one’s conscious
awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten.
4. Collective Unconscious – storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from
people’s ancestral past.
a. Archetypes – emotionally charged images and thought forms that have
universal meanings.
5. Introverts – tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own
thoughts, feelings, and experiences
6. Extraverts – tend to be interested in the external world of people and things.
D. Adler’s Individual Psychology
1. Adler – foremost source of human motivation is a striving for superiority.
2. Striving for superiority – universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master
life’s challenges.
3. Compensation – involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by
developing one’s abilities.
4. Inferiority Complex – exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy.
5. Focused on social context of personality development i.e. birth order.
E. Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives
1. Poor testability and inadequate evidence.
III. Behavioral Perspectives
A. Introduction
1. Behaviorism – theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific
psychology should study only observable behavior.
B. Skinner’s Ideas Applied to Personality
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