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PSYC 2022
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Lecture 3 PSYA02 Notes Language Pt.2 Stages in Language Development • Prelinguistic Stage (0 – 12 months) o Crying, cooing, babbling, phonemic expansion, phonemic constriction o Cooing at 6 weeks  Distinct from crying (e.g. doesn’t occur when infant is upset; lower pitched)  Baby attempts to produce phonemes  These sounds are not made later in life o Babbling at 6-9 months  First production of phonemes (not meaningful)  Produces all possible phonemes  phonemic expansion o Phonemic Constriction at 9-12 months  Phonemes reduce to the subset in their native languages  Pruning of phonemes • One Word Stage (12 – 18 months) o Words serve to accompany actions/events then later acquire a communication function (expressive or directive). o Holophrastic speech: the use of single words to convey a much more complex message (e.g. “milk” instead of “I would like some milk”). o 20 words are acquired per day o First words are for those around them (e.g. parents, siblings, toys) o Moving objects get named faster than still objects o 2/3 is names; about ½ of these are categories for objects, the other is proper names. • Two Word Sentences Stage (e.g. “John milk” instead of “John wants some milk”) o Stage I Grammar (18 – 30 months)  Telegraphic Speech  Motherese (infant-directed speech) o Stage 2 Grammar (30 months – 4 to 5 years)  Acquisition of function words  One generalization of grammatical rules o A lot of imitation by reduction occurs here: repeating someone (e.g. mother) but using only the most important words in the sentence. o Then the mother may repeat the sentence with all function words back in place  imitation by expansion  Assistance in teaching children language by speaking slower, using a broader range of pitch and using syntactically simple phrases. o Every time a ch
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