Class Notes (836,147)
Canada (509,656)
York University (35,302)
Psychology (4,108)
PSYC 2030 (189)
Lecture

chapter2research.odt

6 Pages
125 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2030
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2 – system of ethics is set of standards governing conduct of a person or members of a profession – research psychologists must: treat human research participants with respect and in a way that maintains their rights and dignity, care for the welfare of animals when they are the subjects of research, be honest in the treatment of data Developing theAPAcode of Ethics – under the leadership of Hobbs a new committee on ethical standards for psychology was formed – using a procedure called critical incidents technique the committee surveyed entire membership of APA, asking them to provide incidents of unethical conduct they knew about and to indicate what they perceived as being ethical issue involved General Principles – Beneficence and Non malfeasance: take care. do no harm, seek to safegaurd welfare and rights of those they interact professionally and other affected ppl, and welfare of animal subjects – Fidelity and Responsibility: establish relationships of trust with ppl they work with be aware of professional/scientific responsibilities,clarify professional roles/obligations,accept responsibilit for behaviour,seek to manage conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm – Integrity:seek to promote accuracy,honesty,and truthfulness,in science,teaching and practice of psychology.In situations which deception may be ethically justifiable to maximize benefits and minimize harm – Justice: recognize that fairness and justice entitle all persons access to and benefit from contributions of psychology. take precautions that ensure their potential biases, boundaries of their competence, and limitations of their expertise do not lead to or condone unjust practices – Respect for People Rights and Dignity: respect dignity and worth of all ppl and rights to privacy, confidentiality, and self determination, try to eliminate effect on work of biases and do not knowingly participate in or condone activities of others based upon such prejudices Basis for the code – Beneficence and non malfeasance established principle that psychologists must constantly weigh benefits and costs of the research and seek to achieve the greatest good in their research – Fidelity and Responsibility obligate researcher to be aware of responsibility to society& remind them to always exemplify highest standards of professional behaviour in role as researchers – Integrity compels researchers to be honest in all aspects of research enterprise – Justice obligates researchers to treat everyone with fairness and maintain a level of expertise that reduces bias – Respect for People Rights and Dignity makes researcher to vigorous in their efforts to safegaurd the welfare and protect the rights of those volunteering Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans Judging Benefits and Costs: the IRB – when planning a study experimenter always face conflicting requirements of producing meaningful research results that could ultimately increase our knowledge of behaviour and add to general good, and respecting rights and welfare of the participants and causing them no harm – Institutional Review Board consists of at least 5 people, usually faculty members from several departments including at least 1 member of outside community and minimum of 1 nonscientist – researcher seeking IRB approval typically submit to board a rationale for study and description of research procedures,statement of potential risks,how risks will be alleviated, why they can be justified, copy of informed consent form, and any copies of materials to be used in experiment – distinguish between exempt from full review,eligible for expedited review,full formal review – proposals that are exempt from full review include studies conducted in educational setting for training purposes, purely naturalistic observation studies of public behaviour, , survey research that does not assess sensitive topics, and archival research – proposal receiving expedited review include lab experiment in basic process such as memory, attention,or perception in which participants will not experience significant levels of stress – all other research requires a formal review by the full IRB – IRB have been controversial four four reasons 1)extent to which IRBs should be judging details of research procedures and designs- researcher legitimately object to nonspecialists passing judgements on procedures they may not understand or research traditions they fail to appreciate 2)perception among some researcher that it very difficult to win IRB approval of basic research 3) some researchers complain that IRBs can be overzealous in their concern about risk, weighting it more heavily than warranted, relative to the scientific value of a study 4)IRBs sometimes overemphasize biomedical research model to evaluate proposals, sometimes ask researchers to respond to requests that are not relevant for most psychological research – important component of IRB decision involves determining degree of risk – the distinction is is based on degree to which ppl being studied find themselves in situations similar to those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examination or tests – when there is minimal or no risk, IRB approval is usually routinely granted through expedited review, or the proposal will be judged to be exempt from review – when participant at risk, a full IRB review will occur experimenter must convince committee that value of study outwiegh risk and that the study could not be completed in any other fashion Informed Consent and Deception in Research – informed consent- the notion that in deciding whether to participate in psychological research, human participants should be given enough information about the study's purpose and procedures to decide if they wish to volunteer – subjects might experience deception in a study if it is determined by the researcher, agreed by IRB, that the study could not be done in any other fashion – researcher argue that in absence of deception in certain study,participant would not act naturally – one could argue that truly informed consent should never result in people being deceived – some have recommended eliminating deception in all experiments on the grounds that people in positions of trust should not be lying to others – others have argued that the need for truth in advertising could be met by forewarning those thinking about participating in a deception – forewarning has been criticized on the grounds that subjects would sepnd more time trying to figure out the true purpose of the study than they would behaving naturally, and that many would refuse to participate, thereby reducing the generality of the results of the study – the level of deception is minor in most researcher – typically it involves withholding some information about the study, rather than an elaborate story that create the impression that the study concerns a topic – most deception involves omitting some information in the consent process rather than actively misleading the particpants about what they are to encounter – it still needs to be made clear to them that they can discontinue their particpation at any time – potential volunteers agree to participate after learning the general purpose of the study, basic procedure, and the amount of time for the session – participants understand they can leave anytime without penalty, strict confidentiality will be upheld, and that if there are any lingering questions about the study or complaints about their treatment as participants, there are specific people to contact, also must be informed of any risk – are given the opportunity to receive a summary of the final results once it has been completed – participants must also be informed of the method by which people have been assigned to groups – consent is not required for research that is exempt from full review – consent is not needed in anonymous questionnaires, for data that have already been collected for another purpose, classroom projects, and for certain employment related data collection – it is not needed for observational exercises in a public place Informed Consent and Special Populations – not all research participants are capable of giving consent,due to such factors as age or disability – some persons might experience coercian to volunteer for research – because children might not be able to fully understand a consent form, their parents or legal guardians are the ones who give consent – assent- researchers give the child as much information as possible to gauge whether the child is willing to partcipate – according to SRCD code,assent occurs when child shows some form of agreement to particpate without comprehending full significance of research necessary to give informed consent – researcher has a responsibility to monitor experiments with children and to stop them if it appears that undue stress is being experienced – rewards offered to child must not unduly exceed trange of incentives the child usu
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2030

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit