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research methods review 6-10.docx

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York University
PSYC 2030
Heather Jenkin

CHAPTER: 6,7,8,9,10 CHAPTER 6- MEASUREMENT 1- Conceptualization: the process of taking a construct and refining it by giving it a conceptual or theoretical definition. Requires that you become very clear and state what you mean very explicitly for others to see Conceptual definition: is a definition in abstract, theoretical terms it involves thinking carefully, observing directly, consulting with others, reading what others have said, and trying possible definitions 2- Operationalization: links a conceptual definition to a specific set of measurement techniques or procedures Operational definition: a definition in terms of the specific operations of actions a researcher carries out  could be a survey questionnaire, a method of observing events, a way to measure symbolic content in the mass media Quantitative Conceptualization and Operationalization The measurement process for quantitative research is a straightforward sequence: First conceptualization, then operationalization and finally application of the operational definition or measuring to collect the data There are three levels to consider: conceptual, operational and empirical Conceptual Hypothesis: researcher expresses variables in abstract, conceptual terms and expresses the relationship among variables in a theoretical way Empirical Hypothesis: to determine the degree of association between indicators of observable, empirical evidence  Statistics, correlations, and questionnaires are used  A researcher first conceptualizes a variable, giving it a clear conceptual definition. Next, he or she operationalizes it by developing an operational definition or set of indicators for it. Last, he or she applies the indicators in the empirical world.  A hypothesis has at least two variables, and the processes of conceptualization and operationalization are necessary for each variable Qualitative conceptualization and Operationalization: Conceptualization: Qualitative researchers define rudimentary “working ideas” during the data collection and analysis process Develop new concepts, formulate definitions for the concepts, consider relationships among the concepts Qualitative researchers form the concepts as they examine their qualitative data( i.e: field notes, photos and maps, historical documents) Researcher asks theoretical questions about the data (Why did this happen here? Is this class conflict?) A qualitative researcher conceptualizes by developing clear, explicit definitions of constructs Operationalization: a qualitative researcher operationalizes by describing how specific observations and thoughts about the data contributed to working ideas that are the basis of conceptual definitions and theoretical concepts Operationalization in qualitative research is an after-the-fact description more than a before-the-fact pre-planned technique. Qualitative operationalization describes how researcher collects data, but it includes the researcher’s use of pre-existing techniques and concepts that were blended with those that emerged during the data-collection process Reliability and Validity 1-Reliability: Consistency or dependency of a measure - Does the measure consistently give the same results? - Clear conceptualization - Use of most precise (or highest) level of measurement possible Multiple indicator: ask similar questions, testing the same thing- make people answer it twice or in different ways Use of: pre-tests, pilot studies, replication 2- Validity: Truthfulness of a measure -Is it measuring what the researcher thinks it is measuring? - Was the correct test used? ***Can alternative explanations for change In the dependent variable be eliminated? How to know if it is reliable - Similar results consistently - It is reliable - Means that the same thing is repeated or recurs under the identical or very similar conditions - Different tests but similar results (Reliable BUT NOT VALID) How to know if it is Valid - results that you get in your mind - Different results from what you were thinking - answers are different after each test (Valid BUT NOT RELIABLE) Example: Social scientist would not use an individuals hair to measure their intelligence because it lacks :Validity Types of measurement Validity: Face Validity: Indicator “makes sense” as a measure of a construct in the judgement of others, especially those in the scientific community Content Validity: a measure represent all the aspects of the conceptual definition of a concept - expand the measure or narrow down the definition Criterion Validity: Relies on some outside, independent verification - Comparing it with a similar construct that is widely accepted Concurrent Validity: Pre-existing or already accepted measure to verify the indicator of a construct Predictive validity: relies on the occurrence of a future event or behaviour that is logically consistent to verify the indicator of a construct Four levels of measurement: 1- Nominal: difference among categories (Religion: Christian, Jew, Muslim) - Religious affiliation, hair color, birth place 2- Ordinal: Variables with attributes we can logically rank in order - Socio-economic status, class, level of conflict - Take different levels and order/rank them - Grades: ABCDF OR AGREE, DISAGREE, STRONGLY DISAGREE 3- Interval: Variable whose attributes are rank ordered and have EQUAL distances between adjacent attributes -Temperature, IQ score - No true 0 value 4- Ratio: variables whose attributes meet the requirements of an interval measure and have a TRUE 0 point. - Age: 0,1,2, length of time, #of organizations/groups/ as received in college Measurements: 1-Mutually exclusive attributes: means that individual or case fits into one and only one attribute of a variable - i.e: type of religion 2- Exhaustive attributes: Fit into one of the attributes of a variable - a scale or other measure should provide a category for all possible responses CHAPTER 7-SAMPLING 1- NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING: Sampling elements are selected using something other than a mathematically random process - rarely determine the sample size in advance and have limited knowledge about the larger group or population from which the sample is taken Types of non-probability samples: Haphazard: Get any cases in any other manner that is convenient Quota: Get a preset number of cases in each of the several predetermined categories that will reflect the diversity of the population Purposive: Get all possible cases that fit particular criteria, using various methods Snowball: Get cases using referrals from one or few cases and then referrals from that case, and so forth Sequential: Get cases until there is o additional information or new characteristics Deviant case sampling: Researcher selects unusual or nonconforming cases purposely as a way to provide greater insight Theoretical Sampling: Continue to collect data until no new information emerges 2- PROBABILITY SAMPLING: Involves the selection of a sample from a population, based on the principle of randomization or chance. Types of probability samples: Simple random sampling: researcher creates a sampling frame and uses a pure random process to select cases Systematic sampling: is a random sampling with a shortcut for random selection Stratified sampling: mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories, then uses a random selection method to select cases for each category Cluster sampling: multiple stages and used to cover wide geographic areas which aggregated units are randomly selected CHAPTER 8- SURVEY Research questions that are appropriate for survey research Behaviour/attitudes/beliefs/opinions: How frequently do you smoke weed? What kind of job do you think Rob ford is doing?(Crackhead lol) Characteristics: Are you married,single,divorced,separated Expectations: Do you plan to buy a car in the last 12 months? Self- Classification: Do you consider yourself to be liberal, moderate, or conservative? Into which social class would you put your family? Knowledge: Who was elected mayor in the last election? What percentage of the people in this city is non-white? Types of survey (Advantages/disadvantages) Mail
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