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Lecture Two.docx

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PSYC 2030
Krista Phillips

Lecture Two: • Methodological Pluralism: multiple methods to investigate same phenomena. o i.e.: procrastination studies – obtain data through self report data like questionnaires o i.e.: psychotherapy transcripts- obtain data through taped recordings of therapist and client. They look at qualitative ways of understanding what happens between therapist and client. o i.e.: behaviour of orangutans – observational techniques. Obtain data through watching subject in their natural habitat. Another example, flirting studies : watch people from afar in bars o i.e.: vision studies: laboratory tests • clearly there is a lack of unity in the different methods to test different theories • The lack of unity in subject matter and method has implications on what we study, how we study it but also on how we interpret our data. • Theoretical ecumenism: the application of many theories to understand complex behaviours. o We have multiple competing methods or theories that are all used in understanding the same complex behaviours.  i.e.: why do children develop the way they do? Environment, physical, social, etc.  What causes depression? Physical (Chemical imbalance of certain neurotransmitters), social, and environmental factors o Different psychiatrists will have different ways of interpreting the same data. Unlike MD’s. This is problematic • David Buss: sex differences in mating processes. Difference between what men and women want due to different reasons: evolution, social, hormonal etc. • Langer & Abelson: showed a group of behaviourists and a group of Freudians a video. The tape was a young person talking about himself. Nothing remarkable about him physically. He talked for 20 minutes. They edited out the first 5 minutes and the last 5 minutes. They said to both groups to watch it and give, to the best of clinical ability, an overall estimate of their overall global adjustment. Half of each group was told the person in video was a patient, the other half of each group was told he was a job applicant. o There were differences in their rating based on whether they were Freudian or behaviourist. Freudians thought he was less well-adjusted, they are more likely to see pathology. Difference between whether they thought he was a patient or job applicant. o Behaviourists that thought he was a job applicant said 8. Freudians who thought he was a job applicant they said 5.5. o Behaviourist that thought he was a patient said 7.5, when Freudians thought he was a patient they rated him 3 o Because behaviourists are using concrete observational data, they are trained to deal with objective observations; they don’t read anything into it like the Freudians. o Interpretation of what they see depends on their training • Rosenhan: 6 of his psychologist graduate students went into a mental hospital emergency unit and report they heard voices. And if admitted they were told to behave normally and answer all questions honestly. What was surprising was that, after being admitted, no one notices they were okay. The only people that noticed they were imposters were patients. Rosenhan had to go in and bail all of them out after days. One female kept a diary, he looked at her medical chart and saw they wrote she was partaking in pathological note taking. “On being sane in insane places”. This shows that once people are tuned to see something, they see it. This is very problematic in our field. Shows that what we see as researchers in psychology depends on our background. • Pierce: most reliable way to develop a belief is through the scientific method. o They attempt to describe phenomena, explain, and sometimes predict phenomena. They attempt to control behaviour at some level o All these four are guided by empirical reasoning. • Empirical reasoning: reasoning through combination of logic, observation and measurement. o Not disorganized, not guided by faith, not unsystematic, not guided by tradition, not grounded in personal experience. Guided by two main assumptions:  Determinism: assumption that all events have causes (biological vs. psychic determinism) do not confuse with predestination. They are
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