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Lecture 2- Research.docx

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York University
PSYC 2030
Krista Phillips

Lecture 2 - Research 1/12/2012 12:38:00 PM 1-Lack of unity in psychology  lack of unity in the subject matter -there are many methods used by psychologists used to study -methodological pluralism = use of multiple methods in the field of psychology -we are not joined by a common method – we are not unified by a commitment to a single methodology -*there is also a lack of unity in how we interpret our findings  we stand out from the natural sciences in this regard -different from medicine  psychologists interpret results from tests differently o depending on their theoretical background -what joins these psychologists together is a commitment to scientific methods of conducting research 2-Scientific method -Charles Pierce argued that the most reliable and meaningful way to develop a belief is through the scientific method -we are guided by empirical reasoning  empiricism as a philosophy = knowledge is derived through experience  empirical reasoning = takes place through direct observation/experience o observer reflects logically on these experiences o guided by two main assumptions:  determinism: assumption that all events have causes *biological vs psychic determinism  causes can be predicted within a certain probability  Freud’s psychic determinism = every psychological event is determined by a preceding mental event (unconscious mental determination)  mental event ---- psychic event  Skinner looked at the environment at the most important place to look to understand a person  Functional analysis = principals of reinforcement  objectivity: without bias, can be verified by more than one observer  an objective method is not influenced by human factors such as bias and expectations  can be verified by more than one observer -characteristics of research methods  data-driven  tentative o a theory is the best available abstraction to understand something o a theory ha
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