Lecture 3 – Research.docx

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24 Apr 2012
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Lecture 3 Research 1/19/2012 12:37:00 PM
Ethics
A system of moral principles
Crucial that research is conducted in an ethical manner
o As a society we are sensitive to ethical questions
Standards for writing wasn’t established until 1953
o Because there was ambiguity
o There was inherently very high level of trust, people trusted
psychologists --- got in the way of development of the formal
code
Our ideas of whats right & wrong are socially constructed
In our culture we give a great deal of power to psychiatrists to
decide if a certain behaviour is normal or not
Psychiatric diagnosis are notoriously unreliable
Our ethical code as a social construction will reflect the values of
our culture
o Variation across cultures and overtime
We are a lot more sensitive to the rights of individuals
Standards Influenced by variables that are important in our society
o Stereotypes
Miles and August study on right to die cases when
someone is on life-sustaining medical assistance and
when that patient is unable to communicate, what do
doctors do if there is no living will made by the patient.
Doctor can ask family if person communicated
anything about his wishes
Or did patient live choice to a person
75% of cases where patient was a male
physician tried to determine what patient
wanted
if women choice is left up to the husband
Ethics are relative!
Hannah Arent philosopher that observed that nazi war criminals
did not look like monsters but like the guy next door . ‘The
banality of evil’
APA Code of ethics
General principles
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A) Beneficence and non-malfeasance
o Practice of doing good
o Avoiding the practice of wrongful and hurtful acts
B) Fidelity and responsibility
o Establish relationships of trust with people you work with
o Responsibility to appear to standards of professional
behaviour
C) Integrity
o Honesty in all aspects of research and clinical practice
D) Justice
o Obligation to treat all parties involved in your research in a
fair manner
E) Respect for rights and dignity
o Must recognize and respect people’s rights and dignity
Competence
Treat research participants with dignity and confidence
Boundaries of competence
o Can only work within their boundaries of training
Delegation of work to others
o Responsible for the people that you supervise
Institutional approval
Privacy and confidentiality
o Right to withdraw make participants aware of this
o Obligated to provide to subject information about the nature
about research and potential risk factors and tell them they
are free to withdraw at any time
o Case 1 proff cannot force but has to provide alternative
o Case 3
o Important to know that it is very difficult to get consent forms
from parents of minors
o Researches are obliged to be as transparent as possible
Deception in research and debriefing
o Case 2 cannot let participants know about any deception
too late
o It is your responsibility to debrief your subjects of any
deception
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