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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 – Research.docx

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PSYC 2030
Krista Phillips

Lecture 4 – Research 2/2/2012 12:40:00 PM -human science approach --- inductive process -we cannot have measurement without variables -variables – events, conditions you observe in real world – that show some kids of variation -variables can be things that you manipulate in the environment  ex. dimensions of reward & punishment -in behavioural sciences – distinction between independent & dependent variables  relationship between them is not absolute in any linear sense -one of the biggest problems we face is defining  operationally define o could define it empirically o externally defined -the more subjective the data the more ambiguous our variables get  the more familiar we get with patients the more the variable is hard to explain -observational techniques very important in psychology Naturalistic observation -goal: description of behaviour -covert observer systematically records behaviour in-vivo -no intrusion -wide range of subjects & settings Participants observation: -goal: description -observer joins groups being observed -hidden observer Problems with observational methods 1-absence of control 2-observer bias 3-reactivity 4-ethical issues -under what circumstances do we do observational researchWhy do observational research? 1-to discover relationships 2-importance of ecological validity 3-check on information collected using other techniques Problems with self report data 1-validity  evaluating apprehension, social desirability 2-memory distortions 3-lack of knowledge Tutorial Scaling -how do we quantify behaviour Scales of measurement -there are different ways of assigning numbers to behaviours or events -the goal of measurement is to assign numbers to participants responses need to be sure you are choosing the correct quantifying method -why?  The type of measurement scale you use will dictate what statistic Nominal scales -this is the simplest type of scale -assigning ppl to categories -labeling behaviour or condition -examples: male female, morning evening, introverted or extroverted, experience or no experiences -for the male versus female distinction you might assign all males as 1 & females as 2 -number label is arbitrary  not real number, cannot perform mathematical operations on them -how can yo
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