Exam- 97 multiple choice
Mostly from textbook
Greater emphasis on last 3 chaps.
2hrs n 15 minutes.
Who conducts survey?
Major tv networks
Magazine and trade journals
Used extensively in the behavioural sciences
Gather large amounts of info
Useful way of obtainin info abt ppl’s opinions
Response options and questions can vary
-imp o make sure when writin questions you don’t introduce any baised
-question shud b simple, straight forward, ppl should understand the question
-avoid technical terms
-avoid double-barreled questions
- avoid options that are not mutually exclusive
-avoid leading and loaded questions
leading implies that a certain response is desired (most people favour the use of
nuclear energy, what do u think?)
loaded contain emotion laden words (people who discriminate are racist pigs)
-avoid double negatives (never should one not help others)
-never assume anything. (do you agree or disagree with US trade policy toward
-address sensitive topics sensitively.
-responses to questions
-open ended (respondents state their views in their own words) while quite rich
in the info you get, takes much more time and effort in terms of analyzing it
-close ended ( respondents must limit their answers to the choices present)
more structured approach easy to code, recodrd and analyse results quantitatively.
-info not as rich as the info, not exactly how they feel in a situation or abt that
-Likert scale, 5 point or 7 point. You wanna have half of the items –vely and half
-semantic differential scale, presenting a set of bipolar adjectives paris such as
good-bad, strong-weak. Each item is scord on a 7 point sclae, usually rangng
from -3to+3. Concepts are rated along 3 along 3 basic dimensions. The problem
is to use adjectives that are appropriate for what you are measuring.
-graphic rating scale, requires a maork along a continuos millimeter linethat is
anchored with descriptions at each end. Sometimes known as a feeling
-non-vebal scale, use emotions to indicate response options. Always best to use an
existing scale than to make up a question of your own as it has been thru that
process several times and been tested.
- question placement plays v.imp role. Can affect responses to them. Should
start out with questions that are easy to answer, but that are also interesting.
Demographic items should not be presented first (wen you’re conducting an
interview, you want to build some trust, so you’ll ask them demographic
info). Questions should move from the general to the specific. Should have
some continuity, related items should be presented together; rather than
jumping from issue to issue.
- Layout of questionnaire, use closed-ended questions. Use a consistent item
format. Don’t crowd questions together. Don’t split questions or options
between pages. It is most likely to be completed easily if easy on the eye,
relevant, logical and as short as possible.
- Responses biases.
Social desirablility, caused by motivation to make a good impression on
Acquiescence response- tendency either to agree/disagree with statements
Likely to manifest when, people lack the skill