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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Importance of Early Experiences

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PSYC 2110
Maxine Wintre

October 7th, 2010 1 Class Notes Test - 60 MC from chapter 1-5 (4 alternatives) o E option = use E only when you have a problem with the multiple choice question o - 2 compulsory questions, each worth 5 marks - Choice of 4 / 7 questions, each worth 5 marks - Definitions, examples, how certain processes work - Two Directions of developmental growth - Developed for physical growth, also for social, cognitive, emotional growth - Primarily empirical, not theoretical Cephalocaudal - Direction of growth will be going from the head region to the tail region (from cephalic to the caudal region) - 3 examples of this direction - (1) physical growth = body proportion change o With 2 months in utero = huge head o Growth proceeds in head region in primarily, throughout the trunk at a later age o Water in the head = head remains very big, associate with mental retardation - (2) sensitivity of skin o Sensitive around the face, if touch the child from ear to mouth, they will open their mouth o Skin around head is extremely sensitive - (3) muscular control o If put infant down and watch what they have control over o First area of muscular control is the neck o Parents were told to put babies on their back for sleep time, can put on their tummy during play time Proximodistal - Growth proceeds from the proximodal/central axis of the body, to the extremities/external parts of the body - In prenatal structure, also in functions in post natal structure - Example of proximodistal direction… - (1) inexpensive toy = rattle o But child cant use it, first moves to the rattle, then orient their body to the rattle, then try to grab it, until 1 year old will they be able to grasp it Ten Principles Discontinuous Growth Rates - Development within a system is not smooth or gradual or linear or consistent - Not additive or accumulative, examples… - (1) height o Average infant (2 weeks after birth) is 19-21 inches tall o 1 year is 24-26 inches tall o Height is not in ratio, 1 year is 1 feet, 2 year is 2 foot, 3 year is not 3 foot st o Because of growth spurts, there are only 2 growth spurts for height (puberty, 1 2-3 years of life) - (2) word acquisition o forever for children to say the first word (about a year for child to express 3 words that makes sense) October 7th, 2010 2 Class Notes o 3 words = age 1 o 22 words = age 1 ½ o 272 words = age 2 o 446 words = age 2 ½ o 895 words = age 3 o 1222 words = age 3 ½ o 1540 words = age 4 o 2 growth spurt = graduate from high school to university Asynchronous Growth - Between systems, growth will be uneven - There might be different number of growth spurt, growth spurt occurs at different time - Growth spurts will not look like parallel lines, example… - (1) height (huge height spurt in 1 year of life) - (2) word language (nothing goes on until 2-4 years) - Different growth spurt period depending on what system we look at - Neuron central nervous system = there’s 1, starts in utero. By age 5, the largest growth spurt is taken place - General muscular development = there are 2 (when child begins to walk and puberty) - Genital development = there’s only 1 - Different growth rate for different systems Differentiation & Hierarchic Integration (they go together, but very different term) by Pines Werner Differentiation - Become more specialized. Special cells are deemed to be heart cells, brain cells, lung cells - Out of something that is general, things become more specific / specialized / individuated Hierarchic Integration - After differentiated, they get reorganized or integrated into a more sophisticated development in higher level behaviour (with many many permutations) example… - (1) age 5 child to be able to copy how to draw a square o Children pick up pencil and draw on the paper, but they will just draw scribble because they don’t know how to stop. Therefore, stopping is another differentiation The two makes up epigenesist = the direction to more complex/sophisticated/integrated level - Reached to qualitative understanding, its hard to go backward - Ex: make muffin (more sophisticated hierarchic integration) cant pull out the flour or egg Life Cycle Approach - How development changes, examine the processes (interactive dynamic) - Life span approach = Erik Erikson with 8 stages of development - Research on aging because of baby boom getting older, to provide facility - Also used in sociology Integration of Nature and Nurture - Experience learning/practice as opposed to maturation which is physical/neurology October 7th, 2010 3 Class Notes - Autism = signs (failure to have eye connect with someone, not developed in language by age 2 o Environment plays a role – interventions / special programs o As child gets older, changes will be hard to occur - Environment exposed to language, encourage language instead of crying (alternative way to crying) Importance of Early Experiences - Early experiences might affect his/her later development - Freud suggested it first - Literature with non human species is helpful to address this situation o Random subjects to look for cause/effect statements - Children in deprived environment would not thrive, why animal not develop normally, explanations? - (1) atrophy o If something is unused or has a chance to work, the mechanism will wither, or fail to be available at a later date o Mechanism is present at birth, but not used, just dies out - (2) development failure o A lack of environmental demand on certain systems, they will fail to develop o Certain environmental demand is needed for that mechanism to develop - 1966: Harald Skeeks = orphanages for the retarded in Iowa o Illegitimate to be in adopted families o Institution were over-crowded, no intellectual stimulations o 2 accidents = 2 girls (1.5 years old) removed from orphanage and placed in a home for retarded children o Both function at 6 months level, appeared to be retarded o Infants got a lot of attention from the older retarded girls (a lot of attention and stimulations) o Months later, kids didn’t look retarded, but developing normally o Continue to develop normally for 2 years (able to be adopted at this point) o Was the environment there were in sufficient to make up for the intellectual deficits? o Did the same thing for 13 other children in longitudinal study randomly and placed them in homes for mentally ill individual o Control group remain in orphanage = decline in IQ points o Experimental group put in retarded homes = increase 20-23 IQ points o 11/13 children in experimental group function sufficiently well; none in control group were able to be adopted o Did 20 years follow up after longitudinal study, 13 girls in experimental group were self supporting as opposed to none in control group - Can’t predict rate of IQ from infancy, environment matters Critical Periods - A time interval during which certain development of organs/functions typically occur - Interruption of this development during this time interval will lead to permanent impairment/malfunction - Ex: teratogens (German measles – ears/eyes) - Apply to learning to read, there is a time when it is best to teach a kid to read - Notion of what point to do certain things, implied the work of Vygotsky (scaffolding – knowing at what stage to introduce the next level of development) Sensitive Periods - Harry Harlow lab: can reverse negative effects of being deprived from other primates - Sensitive period = time interval during which organs/functions typically occur October 7th, 2010 4 Class Notes - Interference/interruption of development during this time leads to very difficult to repair d
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