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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Piaget’s (1896-1980) metatheory

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PSYC 2110
Maxine Wintre

Class Notes - November 4th, 2010 1 Piaget’s (1896-1980) metatheory - considered himself as a biologist, not as a psychologist - Called himself an epistemologist (studies how knowledge is acquired, how we come to know certain things) - Piaget’s scientific methods aren’t acceptable by North Americans who were using behaviours, statistics, random samples - Piaget didn’t do random sampling, not interested of behaviour, cant do sampling (just observe his children) not experimental - His method = induce from children’s behaviour, support for his claims - Didn’t follow a standard interview - Didn’t tell the processes underlying the development - These are just assumptions (no experimental to test the validity) 1. Biological - Intelligent was an adaptive human function - Intelligent is a growing organized system (hierarchical integration) - Try to break down the structure of the human system and how they acquire knowledge 2. Interactionist - Stresses the interaction of the individual and the environment - Wasn’t a nativist (everything is just biological) - Believed the environment must have an impact as well - Both nature and nurture is needed - Wasn’t looking for motivation or what we are trying to learn, believed we were born a tendency to make us active to learn 3. Constructivist - Learning occurs as a structuring of the environment, making sense of it - If child is constructing/active in the environment, so they are actively involved in their cognitive growth - Initially, individuals are motorically active in the interaction with the environment (manipulate, do things to the environment in physical way, proceed their abilities to do more in their mind) - Construct the environment, make hypotheses, and test them out (not doing them consciously), making models to test it out if they work - Schools (active school, discovery school, child-guided discovery) = emphasis on child making sense of the environment metorically - Going to be being individual and subjective of how children learn (vary differences) 4. Schemes - Schemes = representation (mode) of the environment - Have 2 components to that model - (1) condition o Bottle is half empty with bottom, what happens if bottle is tipped? Where is the waterline? - (2) effect o Gravity affects the waterline, waterline appears different - Scheme is the structure underlying a sequence of behaviour - Grasping scheme (action scheme) at 8 months old, involves… o Visual scheme (seeing something) o Touching scheme (knowing you can reach it, grasp it and feel the texture of the object) o Can shake it and make a noise 5. Adaptation Class Notes - November 4th, 2010 2 - Ability to use the environment for the further maintenance of life - Effective interaction with the environment - Knowledge and understanding are built by organizing and integrating one’s experiences according to their abilities (make sense of the experience) a. Assimilation o Ability of a scheme to incorporate a new piece of information o An existent scheme and the ability to use it to make sense of something in the environment o The process whereby the child interprets reality in terms of his/her internal model of the world constructed from previous knowledge o Ex: kid at home used his button/beep toy knowledge to his home toys b. Accommodation o Where the scheme is going to change or adjust in order to make sense of the new bit of info o A complementary process of improving one’s model of the world by adjusting the model to external reality o Ex: kid presses the button and it beeps, kept doing it. Kid accommodated and took control and continued to press it 6. Stage notion - A child is not a little man or woman neither a adult, just a child grown bigger - There is qualitative differences, not just quantity - They understand the world in a different way - Anti-preformationist = doesn’t believe infant at birth is what the adult looks like o Believes in epigenesist - A preformationist = someone who believes that everything that is in the adult is present from birth, just a better of maturation a. Epigenesist o Becoming more and more specialized with differentiated, with diff bits making more organized compromised behaviour - The stages are appeared in a fix order, very important to differentiate the fixed stage and the fixed age (there are lots of differences) but order of stages don’t vary - There’s no reversal, once you move to a higher stage, it’s difficult to understand another’s point of view from an earlier stage - No skipping a stage 7. Equilibrium - Each stage reflects a range of organizational pattern - Toward end of the stages, child is in a state of equilibrium - Where everything makes sense and not left with confusion - A merging cognitive structure that reconciles the thinking conflicts of the earlier stage - Reason why theres direction moving forward (trying to make sense of the world) - A homeostatic (like a consolidating period) - Equilibrium stage will be graphed on a developmental graph parallel line, then there will be an increase of development - 2 aspects of equilibrium - (1) the human system is destined to be in the state of stability - (2) we need to be as wide ranging as possible (wide field of equilibrium, be able to make sense of things mathematically, and also in our social life) - Instability that sets the stage to learn something new; the awareness of insufficiency of the stage that will promote moving to the next stage (training is required) Class Notes - November 4th, 2010 3 8. Gestalt notion - The whole is greater than the sum of the parts - New qualitatively different kind of thinking - More than just adding the bits of thought, there has been a real change Four Major Stages of Piaget’s Theory - Formal operation can perform operation, which is the result of cognitive development - Operation = (mental) involves abstraction and manipulation of ideas, ability to abstract regardless of the concrete experiences. Ability to perform logical processes on data Sensorimotor Period (birth to approximate 2 years) - 6 stages in sensorimotor period 1) Automatic Reflexive = more systematized, fluid, better organized (ex: sucking reflex  2 months of age) Circulation React Stage - Sequence of events consisting of first stumbling of some experience as a consequence of some act. Second to try to recapture the experience by re-acting the original movement again in a rhythmic cycle - They are sensorimotor devices of the top order, to make new adaptations (2) Primary Circular Reactions - Repetitive act will sensor on the infants’ own body - Deals with a body part (3) Secondary Circular Reactions - From 4-8 months of age: aimed to maintain an environmental event brought about by chance - Ex: kid with the button and the beep (something that has to do outside the body) - Time where object permanence established, object continue to exist even when child cant see it - Something external to the body (rattle) (4) Coordination of Secondary Schemes - instrumental act, moving an obstacles. An
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