PSYC 2110 Lecture Notes - Chorionic Villi, Behavioural Genetics, Congenital Heart Defect

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2110
Professor
Class Notes (Nature Side) - September 23, 2010
1
1
Research Methods
- Lab research (can manipulate the variables)
- Naturalistic research (observe behaviour)
- Experimental research (highly controlled)
- Correlational research (no cause/effect)
o Study cause/effect by random group/sample assignment (in experimental/control groups)
- Theory guided research (should choose appropriate design; questionnaires might not be appropriate for all ages)
- Atheoretical Research
Sampling Strategies
- Cross section research
- Longitudinal research
- Case studies
3 types of reliability
- Test-retest reliability
- Interrater reliability
- Consistency/reliability across subjects/children = generalized reliability
Behavioural Genetics
Gregor Mendel 1865-1900 (19th century monk)
- Creative notion = idea of not averaging the traits from the mother/father in the offspring
- Offspring didn’t indicate average of traits of parents
- Males are males; not average of female/males
- Transmitted discretely from one generation to the other
- Took a group of tall flowers / short flowers and cross fertilized
o TT x tt 100% looks tall [1st generation dominant T gene; phenotype would look the same but
genotype is different]
o Tt x Tt 1 (short): 3 (tall) [2nd generation mostly dominated by genotype)
TT (tall) + Tt (tall) + tT (tall) + tt (short)
Phenotype = characteristics that individual portrays (what they look like; observational feature)
Genotype = genetic composition responsible for that phenotype
Phenotype Vs Genotype
- Some genes are dominant genes (T), some genes are recessive genes, only be obvious from
phenotype/appearance if there were 2 recessive genes
- If theres 1 dominant gene, that will be expressed in genotype, therefore looks tall
- Phenotype can be influenced by the environment
- Genes set a potential/limits; but environment determines if those limits are achieved
Dominant Vs Recessive Genes
- Dominant genetic attribute = dark hair, curly hair, normal sight (normal colour vision), normal blood (RH+
factor), Huntington disease (dementia; random jerking movements express symptoms in middle age)
o On the type of chromosome #4 (hard to get to)
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Class Notes (Nature Side) - September 23, 2010
2
2
- Recessive genetic attribute = red/light hair, straight hair, blue eyes, haemophilia, patch-baldness, colour
blindness, diabetes, some forms of childhood muscular dystrophy
- Most are determined by polygenetic (by number of genes which influence in an additive way)
Homozygous Vs Heterozygous
- Ex: TT (only dominant gene) tt (only recessive gene) Tt (heterozygous)
Polygenetic
- Influenced by many different genes
- Should be normally distributed in the population
o Mean median mode are the same point (the line right in the middle, divide frequency in half)
o -1Standard Deviation - +1SD = 68%
o Mean +1SD = 34%
o -2SD +2SD = 95%
o >+2SD = 2.5%
o Y = characteristic frequency
- Ex: knowledge is polygenetic
The Human Genome Project
- 100 thousands genes of human in DNA
- Want to find location, chemical composition, sequence, what they are contributed to, what their function
- No 100 000 genes, 20-30 thousand genes
- Genes are responsible for alzemeir, schizophrenia, manic depression, breast cancer, psychological tendency to
follow orders, to male homosexuality
- There are a lot of ethical considerations in this project
- You carry the gene doesn’t mean you will have the outcome
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
Sex Determination
- 23 pairs of chromosome of human cell
Autosomes
- 1st 22 pairs are called autosomes
- 23rd pair contains the sex hormone
- Every normal female has 2 X chromosome; Every normal male as 1 X 1 Y chromosome
Mitosis / Meiosis
Fertilization
Conception
- When sperm penetrates the ovum/egg of a female
- Result of ovum penetrated of sperm = zygote
Zygote
- Half sperm carries X chromosome; half sperm carries Y chromosome
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Document Summary

Class notes (nature side) - september 23, 2010 1. Correlational research (no cause/effect: study cause/effect by random group/sample assignment (in experimental/control groups) Theory guided research (should choose appropriate design; questionnaires might not be appropriate for all ages) Creative notion = idea of not averaging the traits from the mother/father in the offspring. Offspring didn"t indicate average of traits of parents. Males are males; not average of female/males. Transmitted discretely from one generation to the other. Tt (tall) + tt (tall) + tt (tall) + tt (short) Phenotype = characteristics that individual portrays (what they look like; observational feature) Genotype = genetic composition responsible for that phenotype. Some genes are dominant genes (t), some genes are recessive genes, only be obvious from phenotype/appearance if there were 2 recessive genes. If there"s 1 dominant gene, that will be expressed in genotype, therefore looks tall. Genes set a potential/limits; but environment determines if those limits are achieved.

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