Class Notes (834,818)
Canada (508,737)
York University (35,167)
Psychology (4,108)
PSYC 2110 (150)
Lecture 6

Lecture 6 - Possible Theories of Language Development

4 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 2110
Maxine Wintre

Class Notes – November 11th, 2010 1 - Language = well ordered system of rules that each adult member of the language community taskedly (tasedly) comprehends in speaking, listening, and writing - Tasedly = not necessarily know the rules involved, cant be stated. 2 Elements of Language: Phoneme, Morpheme - Phoneme = most basic fundamental units of the study of language - Morpheme = basic sounds - Diff languages employ diff number of sounds - English: 36 phonemes, other languages have 25, or maybe 50 - Many alphabetical letters can have several alternative phonemes associated o “a” = “ehhhh” or “ahhh” o “c” = “kaaa” or “ssssss” - Study of sound system = phonology o Concerned with which sound typically occur (sequences of sound) = ax, br, cl. (not typical) = bc, pq, mx o These rules to combine phoneme is diff from diff countries, but all have similar rules - Morpheme is string of sound that conveys meaning (will have distinct meaning of its own) o “book”, “let”, “booklet” - Morphology = study of rules used to combine morphemes with each other - All words in a language consist of more than 1 morphemes tied together - Not all morphemes are words Ex: prefixes (pre, re, ex, con) suffixes (tion, est, icly) verb tense markers (-ed, ing) - Some languages use morphemes to mark the case of the noun of the sentence o Latin/greek/Russian = depending on ending of the word, you know the subject / object of the sentence - Morphological rules = certain sequences of words occur in language o Help with spelling o Cvc (consonant vowel consonant) = if add a morpheme o If the word ended in a cvc then you double the consonant before you add the (morpheme)  Stop (CVC)  add extra p + morpheme (stopped) Elements of Grammar - Morphology in syntax = rules for combine words to produce acceptable phrases in sentences - Syntax children use is different than syntax rules adults use - Grammar = a formal description of a speaker’s syntactical rules (the rules they use when speaking) - In school’s grammar = diagram your sentence (what is the subject, verb, predicate) - There are other rules = semantics (expressed meanings, meaning of words in sentences) with 2 components - (1) appropriate use of words in social context o What word one uses in the playground with your friends or with parents o Child’s vocab increases, they start to learn which word is appropriate in which social settings o Differ in culture norms - (2) appropriate use of words in sentences o More complex developmental process o Not meaningful if don’t use the appropriate use of words in sentences - An opening transformational grammar = kids able to produce novel sentences that are grammatically correct in unique ways that are meaningful and have never heard before (without instruction) Possible Theories of Language Development Imitation - learn to speak/write/understand of the language by imitating the language we hear around us - There is a high positive correlation between socioeconomic status and language skills o More education available to them (read more, more books) Class Notes – November 11th, 2010 2 - Development of language of only child is better, than children with siblings (eldest child has better language development than younger ones) o More interaction with adults, younger child mostly learn from older sibling instead of adults - Imitation have meanings, but children can understand and produce sentences they’ve never heard before - kids’ language error are not random (appear to be overt generalization of rules or overextension of rules) - imitation is not the best theory to explain how kids learn complex language so quickly Cognitive Development - Children have to first learn the concepts first prior to language development - Language actually comes before the concept - Kids will use assimilation and accommodation (use dog to describe all 4-legged animal and then learn to differentiate from diff animals) Conditioning and B.F. Skinner - Skinner’s work include imitation if one were to adapt Bandura’s to Skinner’s theory - Skinner: the children will emit to some sounds, sounds will be reinforced, then probability of those sounds will increase. Sounds that aren’t reinforced, they will be extinguished - Cultural differences: most English speaking CAN aren’t brilliant to trill their “rrrrrrrr” - Giving the individual that meets their primary needs, secondary reinforcers (attention) say something that gets attention, then parents will say something back and exchange - Child’s own voice will be another reinforce (they like to hear themselves talk) - Children emit language that imitates that of their parents - Language acquisition is not linear (not a gradual steady progression of more and more words/rules) - Problem: when parents hear child’s talk, they will reinforce true value rather than grammatical correctness - Cant account for the fact that children’s errors are not random, appear to be over generalization/extension of rules (kids cant tell you about, but they can do it) - Doesn’t allow to explain how children have an open transformational grammar (come up with expressions that they have never heard before, can manipulate those expressions) Information Processing (Noam Chomsky) – most predominate right now - Chomsky: all children acquire comparable grammar (phonemes, morphemes) of great complexity with remarkable speed, suggests human are genetically capable of acquiring language (nativist) - All human are born with an innate prewiring for language (potential to develop rules for language) - Language acquisition device (LAD) = no physiological language device, but refers body of language in the child’s environment as the corpus, the corpus gets processed in the LAD (like computer processing model) o Receives input, classify the input/data, construct rules to take into account, regularities, applies these (ir)regularities to new utterances which
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2110

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.